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TRANSFINE – TRANS fer between F ormal, I nformal and N on-formal E ducation Country studies ESTONIA Workgroup Aune Valk – University of Tartu Aili Saluveer – University of Tartu Ülle Kesli – University of Tartu Kaja Karo – University of Tartu

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workgroup
Workgroup
  • Aune Valk – University of Tartu
  • Aili Saluveer – University of Tartu
  • Ülle Kesli – University of Tartu
  • Kaja Karo – University of Tartu
  • Anne Kivimäe – Ministry of Education and Research
  • Terje Haidak – Ministry of Education and Research
  • Eda Anton – Tartu Centre of Vocational Training
methods of research
written sets of questions

interviews

meetings of focus groups

group-work (in conference)

panel discussion (in conference)

Methods of research
participants
Voluntary and Youth Sector- 9 sets of questions + interviews

General Education– 10 sets of questions + 30 representatives in focus group discussion

Vocational Education– 16 sets of questions

Higher Education– 16 sets of questions + 25 representatives in focus group discussion

Adult Education – 10 sets of questions + interviews

Employers and Social Partners– 5 sets of questions + 5 representatives in focus group discussion

Government – representatives from Ministry of Education and Research and Ministry of Social Affairs

Participants
background 1 work
changes in society

changes in education system and labour market

quickly changing labour market – education is not sufficient, work experience is required;

new professions

establishment of the requirements for professional qualificationand assigning a profession

Background 1 (work)
background 2 education
higher education reforms promoted the discussion for Accreditation of Prior and Experiential Learning (APEL)

until 1992:5 year studies = Diploma of Specialist; studies for Candidate of Sciences; the highest degree - Doctor of Sciences - after decades of research

since 1992:4 years for Bachelor; 2 years for Master; and 4 years for PhD

applying Bologna Declaration in 2002:3+2 system for Bachelor’s and Master’s degree

increase in the number of adult students in formal education (2 times in 5 years – 60 000)

vocational schools were reformed into applied higher educational institutions

diversification of educational institutions

more flexible curricula

Background 2 (education)
apel in estonia
APEL in Estonia

EMPLOYERS AND

SOCIAL PARTNERS

ADULT AND

CONTINUING EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

GENERAL EDUCATION

general education
previous formal education

studies abroad

music, art groups, sport

elective subjects

recognised more in

specialised schools

evening schools (for adults)

strict regulations: Basic School and Secondary School (Gymnasium) Act

GENERAL EDUCATION
vocational education
formal education as a part of curriculum

recognition of preliminary vocational education

workexperience as a part of practical training

secondary vocational education as a part of applied higher education

national regulations: Vocational School Act, Applied Higher Educational Institutions Act, etc

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
higher education
formal education of the same level from other universities

continuing education as elective subjects

work experience as an additional requirement for admission and/or as a part of practical training

admission to Master or PhD studies (...degree or its equivalent)

some very flexible examples

national regulations: University Act,

Standards of Higher Education

HIGHER EDUCATION
adult and continuing education
more flexible curriculum, i.e. tailoring it to the needs of learners by changing or cancelling modules, etc

non-formal education is too close to formal education - similar criteria for assessment

no national regulations

ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
employers and social partners
recruitment - formal studies and prior work experience, the qualities of personality

enhancing qualification - different aspects are assessed

ways of assessment are very diversified

mostly inner regulations

national regulations: Professional Qualifications Act, Standards of Professional Qualifications etc (not obligatory)

EMPLOYERS AND SOCIAL PARTNERS
what is taken into account
general education – studies abroad, music and art groups, sport and to certain extent elective subjects

vocational education – formal education of the same level, preliminary vocational education and work experience

higher education – admission, formal education of the same level, continuing education, work experience, secondary vocational education as a part of applied higher education

adult and continuing education– tailoring curriculum to the needs of learners

employers – formal studies, work experience, personal characteristics (recruitment), continuing education and personal development (accreditation)

What is taken into account?
what is taken as the bas i s for apel
documents of prior studies (certificates, diplomas, supplements)

control of knowledge and skills (examination, test, practical work)

portfolio

CV

recommendations

interviews

What is taken as the basis for APEL?
tools
Estonian credit points system in higher education:

1 credit point (CP) is corresponding to 40 hours or 1 week of student’ work

the volume of curriculum per 1 nominal study year is 40 CP

diploma studies - 120-160 CP

bachelor studies - 120-160 CP

master studies - 40-80 CP (including the bachelor's studies it must not be less than 200 CP)

PhD studies - 160 CP

From 1.09.2006 Estonian higher education programmes must be in conformity with the ECTS rules.

Tools
problems 1
lack of awareness

people are not aware of their opportunities for APEL

they are not able to assess their experience/knowledge and offer it as their development/prior studies

traditions and attitude

suspicion and sometimes even opposition to alternative education of those who have acquired classical formal education

Problems 1
problems 2
lack of regulations(or sometimes too strict rules)

decisions are subjective

question of responsibility

problems with legislation

national examinations since 1996

new University Act (50% of studies in the institution that issues a diploma, contradicting the Lisbon Convention)

strict requirements for the academic staff

curricula are subject-based not outcome oriented

Problems 2
problems 3
money

application of APEL is time-consuming and there are no fixed financial sources

alternative education is dealt (not always consciously) with as a dangerous competitor to formal education

difference between diplomas, certificates with regard to their content, quality and level

diplomas from different times have different scope and content

in different institutions the subjects are taught at different levels and scopes

content and scope of prior (pre 1992) studies have not been pointed out

Problems 3
problems
lack of awareness

tradition and attitude

lack of regulations (or sometimes too strict rules)

problems with legislation

money

difference between diplomas, certificates with regard to their content, quality and level

Problems
attitude to the european system
necessary

no uniform system in Estonia

useful

guarantees integrated approach to accreditation of prior learning

increases the awareness of potential users about their opportunities

regulations and tools simplify decision-making

facilitates free movement of learners and labour force inside the country and between the states

Attitude to the European system
european system should
be simple and understandable

be transparent

be available and open

be applicable to all study forms and levels

be mutually recognised

be based on guaranteeing the required quality

guarantee comparability of different certificates, diplomas, degrees and qualification requirements

provide necessary tools for application of APEL (especially for informal education)

be supported with guidance and counselling

European system should
system of apel of the university of tartu draft
I.Principles

II. APEL and Admission to the University

III.APEL as a Part of Fulfilment of the Requirements of Curriculum

IV. Procedure of APEL

V. Financing

VI. Quality control

System of APEL of the University of Tartu (draft)