Concepts Ideology Democracy Capitalism Rights & Responsibilities Participation Representation All known and understood in an AMERICAN context
The USA is a democratic country Democracy Government Of the people By the people For the people Underpins American rights and freedoms
The USA is a capitalist country Capitalism An ideology which says how to organise the economy People are free to buy and invest in businesses People are encouraged to Work hard Make profits Become wealthy Improving their standard of living Achieving the American Dream
The rights of Americans are protected by the Constitution Rights & Freedoms Bill of Rights Right to vote Right to stand for election Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Right to protest Right to a fair trial
Rights & Responsibilities Examples? Individuals in USA Interest groups in USA Rights bring Responsibilities
Rights & Responsibilities in the USA Democratic rights Free speech Fair trial Vote for representatives Carry a gun You must show your understanding By using American examples Vote at Federal, State and local level Vote for President and Members of Congress – eg Senators For State Governor and State Congress Vote for Mayor and local officials – dog catcher Rights Protected in the Constitution Bill of Rights Rights bring corresponding responsibilities Rights restricted under new anti terrorism laws held without trial telephone tapping / e mail surveillance stop and search eg at airports
Equality? Do all Americans have the same chances in life? Do all Americans have the same opportunities to achieve the American Dream? • The American Dream • Encouraged people to migrate – push / pull factors • Ethnic mix of population • Not all equal – some groups are more successful than others
The American Dream Pull Factors + Push Factors Immigration The American People Melting Pot Salad Bowl Mosaic Minorities & Inequalities
The American Reality Social inequality – housing, health, education, crime Economic Inequality – income, employment, poverty Crime – particular problem for Black minority in ghetto areas
Low standard of living - poverty Unemployment Poor health Poor education Crime Poor housing
Poverty An American Reality Unemployment Discrimination Why poverty? Single parent families Poor education Low pay Welfare cutbacks
The American Reality Social and Economic Inequality All Americans are not equal when it comes to achieving the American Dream. For members of some ethnic minorities, in particular the Black Americans, the reality is social and economic inequality.
Describe how some more successful than others: Show differences in housing, education, health and crime for White Americans Black Americans Hispanic or Latino Americans Asian Americans High quality, low density suburbs; large houses, gardens, pool. Gated communities – self sufficient communities behind security fences Af & Hispanic more likely to live in inner city ghetto areas, poor run down housing; Poor health – higher mortality for African and Hispanic Americans than for Asian and White also less likely to have health insurance; Poorly resourced schools and higher drop out rates; crime
To explain inequalities we can look at the links between social and economic factors Economic Inequality Social Inequality
or Unemployment Low paid work Lack of qualifications Poverty A Vicious Circle Low cost housing areas Drugs and crime Limited educational resources
Social Inequalities 1 Health Americans must pay for health care Poorer Americans are less able to afford health care Black and Hispanic Americans are less likely to have health care 2 Education Inner city schools are less well resourced than suburban schools: Poorer areas = poorer scholls Black and Hispanic Americans have fewer qualifications than white Americans
3 Housing Inner city ghetto housing is poor in facilities, more likely to be overcrowded and run down Segregation – poorer ethnic minorities in inner city areas Schools have problems getting staff and resources Crime a major problem – especially drugs and violent crime Outer suburbs are in contrast – larger houses with amenities Improved schools ‘Gated’; secure
4 Crime Inequalities in crime and justice: Rich people can afford expensive lawyers – poor people are les likely to be well defended. Blacks more likely to be convicted, sentenced to prison and given the death sentence than other ethnic groups Regional inequality – some states have death sentence and use it more than others. READ pages 32 –34 Activities 1-6 page 34
Economic Inequality Income: Relates to employment opportunities which can be determined by education and qualifications Employment type: Affects income; depends on education, qualifications Unemployment Rates: Some groups more likely to be unemployed than others Poverty: More whites in poverty than any other group BUT higher proportion of Black and Hispanics in poverty.
Whats been done about it? Affirmative action examples What effect? Increasing proportion of Black middle class But Black and Hispanic Americans suffer most from poverty
Political Participation & Representation
Joining a political party Republican Democrat Voting in Local, State or Federal Elections Participation Write to a newspaper Eg Washington Post Lobby a politician Senator Congressman Copy and complete the spider diagram – give AMERICAN examples!!
Federal Representatives President Senators Congressmen Representation State Representatives Governor ….. Local Representatives Even the dog catcher! Complete with examples and names Consider how fair is the representation of women and minorities? Reasons for this?