The Great Depression Museum By: Kirsten Gwizdala and Ryan Meyers Hr. 4
Why did we create this museum? • We created this museum to inform everyone of a few of the most important aspects of the Great Depression. • We have chosen 10 events in which we believe will leave an impact on people who view them.
Ernest Hemingway • He was one of the most famous writers of the depression period. • Member of the Popular Front, which was an ultra-liberal group to support the global cause of liberalism and in some cases communism.
His most famous novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, depicts an American involved in the Spanish Civil War. • His work reflects the disillusionment of the time and the desire to return to a simpler time of traditional morality.
“The door might not be opened to a woman again for a long, long time and I had a kind of duty to other women to walk in and sit down on the chair that was offered, and so establish the right of others long hence and far distant in geography to sit in the high seats.” • -Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins • She was the first female to hold a cabinet position in U.S. history. • She was appointed by Roosevelt. • She held the office of Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945.
Wagner-Peyser Act Fair Labor Standards Act Wagner Act She established the Labor Standards Bureau. she strengthened labor law enforcement by the states. She was also the principal architect of the Social Security Act.
Franklin D. Roosevelt took on the job of presidency at the depth of the Great Depression. He brought faith and hope to the people that things would get better. “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” He introduced the New Deal which showed his strategies to do this. Franklin Roosevelt
What are fireside chats? • Fireside chats were radio broadcasts given to the citizens during FDR’s presidency. • They became a trend as “America’s newsflashes” until FDR’s death in 1945. • They represent Roosevelt's creative ways to communicate to the public and show off his speaking skills.
March 4th -March 14th 1933 All national banks closed until Congress allowed solvent banks to re-open. Was supposed to gain public confidence in the banking system once again. This prevented people from withdrawing all of their money from banks in fear of loosing it. These led to the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which protected bank deposits. “Bank Holiday”
The Dust Bowl "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants, scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are hungry. We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all for land." -John Steinbeck (1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath)
What was the Dust Bowl? • 150,000 area which became dry and eroded due to excess farming. • Dust storms in the area caused a great migration of farmers westward in search of land and jobs.
Social Security • The Social Security Act passes on August 14th, 1935 • It provided elderly and disabled people with benefits. • It also helped dependant mothers and children. • Social Security was the first step to a welfare system.
This is a picture of the veterans who fought in World War 1 being burned out of their camps.
Bonus March • May-July 1932 was when this march went on. • Caused by the rejection of the idea that veterans should get their bonus from World War 1 early. • On July 28 the march became violent as bricks were thrown at police.
The Constitution gives the requirements for the State of the Union Address. • "The President shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient." (Article 2, Section 3)
The State of the Union Address • The State of the Union Address is an annual speech given by the president of the U.S. • Franklin Roosevelt began calling this speech the “State of the Union Address” in 1935 and it has stuck since then. • In FDR’s speech he proposed the Second New Deal.
Black Thursday • Thursday, October 24, 1929 was the day the stock traders engaged in a selling panic. • More than 12 million shares were moved through the market. • The market dropped in value 9% that day. • The led the economy to a ruin and the stock market to a crash.
Bibliography • www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/ 1954/hemingway-bio.html (ERNEST HEMINGWAY) • www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/perkins.htm (FRANCES PERKINS) • www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/fr32.html (FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT) • www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/firesi90.html (FIRESIDE CHATS) • www.mhric.org/fdr/fdr.html (FIRESIDE CHATS) • mutualfunds.about.com/cs/history/a/black_thursday.htm (BLACK THURSDAY)
www.usd.edu/anth/epa/dust.html (THE DUST BOWL) • www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/ peopleevents/pandeAMEX89.html (BONUS MARCH) • www.ssa.gov/history/law.html(SOCIAL SECURITY ACT) • www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/history/html (STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS) • http://www.hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/Hooverstory/gallery07/gallery07.html (BANK HOLIDAY)