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The Continuing Story of the Computer Age: Past, Present, and Future. Appendix. Objectives. Describe the generations of computer design leading up to the present Describe the story of personal computer development Explain the underlying concepts and terms of artificial intelligence

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the generations of computer design leading up to the present
  • Describe the story of personal computer development
  • Explain the underlying concepts and terms of artificial intelligence
  • Explain the fundamentals of expert systems, robotics, and virtual reality
  • Give examples of the impact these fields have on business and everyday life
contents
Contents
  • The Computer Age
  • The First Generation
  • The Second Generation
  • The Third Generation
  • The Fourth Generation
  • The Fifth Generation
the computer age
The Computer Age
  • Rapid changes
  • Four generations over 50 years
  • Trends across generations
    • Decrease size
    • Increase speed
the first generation
1951-1958

Vacuum Tube

Heat

Burnout

Machine language

Magnetic core memory

Storage

Punched cards

Tape (1957)

The First Generation

UNIVAC

Universal Automatic Computer

First computer built for business.

the second generation
1959-1964

Transistor

Smaller

No warm-up time

Less energy

Less heat

Faster

More reliable

Storage

Removable disk pack (1954)

Magnetic tape

Programming languages

Assembly language

FORTRAN (1954)

COBOL(1959)

The Second Generation

Used primarily by business, university, government

the third generation
1965-1970

Integrated Circuit

Electronic circuit on small silicon chip

Reliability

Compactness

Low cost

Inexpensive – mass-produced

Family of computers

Software

Upward compatibility

Unbundled software

Several programs share computer’s resources

Interactive processing

The Third Generation
the fourth generation
The Fourth Generation
  • 1971-Present
  • Microprocessor
    • General-purpose processor on a chip
  • Explosive growth
    • Digital watches
    • Pocket calculators
    • Personal computers
    • Cars
    • Copy machines
    • Television sets
personal computer history
Personal Computer History

Apple (1975)

  • Home use
  • Keyboard
  • Screen
  • VisiCalc spreadsheet software
personal computer history10
Personal Computer History

IBM (1981)

  • Became industry standard
  • Improved keyboard
  • 80-character screen
  • Add memory
  • Expansion slots
  • Encouraged hardware and software development by others
  • Nonproprietary parts
  • Clones
personal computer history11
Personal Computer History

Microsoft/Intel

  • Wintel
    • Microsoft supplies operating system for PC
      • MS-DOS
      • Windows
    • Intel supplies microprocessor
  • Continually challenged – others making inroads
personal computer history the internet revolution
Personal Computer HistoryThe Internet Revolution
  • Started as ARPANet – a network of computers that could survive a nuclear attack
  • Attractive to the average user
    • Links
    • Graphical browser
the fifth generation
The Fifth Generation
  • Mid 1990’s
  • Intelligent computers
    • Artificial intelligence
    • Expert systems
    • Natural language
the fifth generation ai artificial intelligence
The Fifth GenerationAI – Artificial Intelligence
  • How computers can be used for tasks that required human characteristics
  • How to make computers do things that people currently do better
  • Evolving science

Robotics

Problem Solving

Natural languages

Expert systems

the fifth generation ai how computers learn
The Fifth GenerationAI – How Computers Learn
  • Improve performance based on past errors
  • Knowledge base – set of facts and rules
  • Inference engine – applies rules to the facts to create new facts
  • Example

Fact: Amy is Ken’s wife

Rule: If X is Y’s wife, then Y is X’s husband

Created Fact: Ken is Amy’s husband

the fifth generation data mining
The Fifth GenerationData Mining
  • Extracting previously unknown information from existing data
    • Relationships
    • Trends
  • Look for hidden information that cannot be found because of the size of the database
the fifth generation natural language
The Fifth GenerationNatural Language
  • Humans communicate with computers in the language they use on a daily basis
  • Ambiguities of natural language
the fifth generation expert systems
The Fifth GenerationExpert Systems
  • Software used with an extensive set of organized data that presents the computer as an expert on a particular topic
  • User
    • Knowledge seeker
    • Asks questions in English-like format
  • Computer responds with an answer and explanation
the fifth generation building an expert system
The Fifth GenerationBuilding an Expert System

Expert system shell

Software that contains the basic structure used to find answers to questions

Build knowledge base

Knowledge engineer writes rules

the fifth generation robotics
The Fifth GenerationRobotics
  • Computer-controlled device that can physically manipulate its surroundings
  • Primarily found in factories
  • Field robots
    • Dangerous work
    • “Dirty” jobs
the fifth generation vr virtual reality
The Fifth GenerationVR – Virtual Reality
  • Engage a user in a computer-created environment
    • User physically interacts with computer-created environment
    • Immersion – user becomes absorbed in the VR interaction
  • How it works
    • Alters perceptions
    • Appeals to several senses at once
    • Presents images that respond immediately to users movements
the fifth generation vr virtual reality22
The Fifth GenerationVR – Virtual Reality
  • The future of VR
    • Virtual showroom
    • Try new medical procedures on simulated patients
  • Problem
    • Simulator sickness
    • Costs