Tele-operations in Space Arno Wielders Space Horizon
Content • Space Environment • Tele-operations in space • The International Space Station • Mars Exploration Rovers • Future space exploration • Conclusions
Space Environment • Vibrations / shocks • Vacuum • Extreme temperature changes • Radiation • Long communication delays • 1 chance / no repairs possible in most circumstances
International Space Station Mass: 195 tons Volume: 425 m3 Width: 73 m length: 52 m height: 27,5 m Speed: 7.7 km/s Collaboration between: United States Japan Brazil Russia Europe Canada
ERA • The European Robotic Arm, ERA will be used for the assembly and servicing of the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS). ERA is supposed to support a variety of tasks around the ISS including: • Integration of the International Space Station • Manipulation of larger building blocks • Exchange of small and larger replaceable units • Inspection of the surfaces of the ISS • Extra-Vehicular Activities of the cosmonauts ERA offers multiple modes of operation including: • Automated pre-programmed manoeuvres • Interactive control of ERA operations • Control from cosmonauts outside the ISS • Control from cosmonauts inside the ISS • Control from ground based facilities
Mars Exploration Rover Field tests Mission Rover Control
Mars Exploration Rover • Mission Control • Check images • Look for hazards and perform science analysis • Discuss new goal • Create new command • Check new command • Execute command • Wait for result • (20-40 minutes) • Check images • Next command
The Vision for Space Exploration • Complete ISS assembly and retire Shuttle • Build new human spacecraft (CEV) for transport • beyond LEO • Return to the Moon with people and robots to • explore and prepare for voyages beyond • Human missions to Mars and other destinations
Vision for Space Exploration • Autonomous robots • Construction robots, pavers, diggers • Robotic assistants • Field assistant, habitat assembly • Human-controlled robots • Remote-controlled from Earth or locally • Telepresence robots • Used by crews on Moon and scientists on Earth; pre-reconnaissance of geological targets • Use to conduct real field work? • Will TP robots replace human geologists?
A possible strategy • Have robots to do what they can do • Use robots to conduct reconnaissance at exploratory sites • Let people do follow-up field study • Make equipment that deploys automatically (no ALSEP) • However, design systems to allow people to intervene when things get hung-up or broken • The actual mix of activities and development of an operational paradigm is in itself a research topic
Vision for Space Exploration Teleoperation of humanoid robotics with medium-range time delays • –many DOF • –1.5-10s round-trip delay, e.g. for lunar operations • –delay can introduce instability Various approaches have been studied and used: • – “bump and wait” • – predictive display • – supervisory control
Telepresence • What’s really required? • Stereo HD vision • Tactile feedback • Mobility • Dexterity • Anthropomorphism • How significant is the presence”effect? • Multiple limbs, eyes, end-effectors • Single-or multi-operator control? • Augmented sensory capability • Multi-spectral vision • In situ analysis: what and how much? • Control time lags • Maximum permissible • How does “presence”effect degrade with increasing time lag?
Conclusions Robotic activities when humans arrive on the Moon (or before) • – perform work, construction • – operational (support) tasks Different levels of autonomy will play an important role • – tele-operation needed for first robots to arrive on the Moon • Moon base expansion through tele-operated robots in difficult situations Human/Robotic Exploration of Mars • Earth Return Vehicle operations • Entry, Descent and Landing • Operations on the surface: human-robot interaction