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Tele-operations in Space Arno Wielders Space Horizon Content Space Environment Tele-operations in space The International Space Station Mars Exploration Rovers Future space exploration Conclusions Space Environment Vibrations / shocks Vacuum Extreme temperature changes Radiation

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slide1
Tele-operations in Space

Arno Wielders

Space Horizon

content
Content
  • Space Environment
  • Tele-operations in space
    • The International Space Station
    • Mars Exploration Rovers
    • Future space exploration
  • Conclusions
space environment
Space Environment
  • Vibrations / shocks
  • Vacuum
  • Extreme temperature changes
  • Radiation
  • Long communication delays
  • 1 chance / no repairs possible in most circumstances
international space station
International Space Station

Mass: 195 tons

Volume: 425 m3

Width: 73 m length: 52 m height: 27,5 m

Speed: 7.7 km/s

Collaboration between: United States Japan Brazil

Russia Europe Canada

slide6
ERA
  • The European Robotic Arm, ERA will be used for the assembly and servicing of the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS).

ERA is supposed to support a variety of tasks around the ISS including:

• Integration of the International Space Station

• Manipulation of larger building blocks

• Exchange of small and larger replaceable units

• Inspection of the surfaces of the ISS

• Extra-Vehicular Activities of the cosmonauts

ERA offers multiple modes of operation including:

• Automated pre-programmed manoeuvres

• Interactive control of ERA operations

• Control from cosmonauts outside the ISS

• Control from cosmonauts inside the ISS

• Control from ground based facilities

mars exploration rover12
Mars Exploration Rover

Field tests

Mission Rover Control

mars exploration rover13
Mars Exploration Rover
  • Mission Control
  • Check images
  • Look for hazards and perform science analysis
  • Discuss new goal
  • Create new command
  • Check new command
  • Execute command
  • Wait for result
    • (20-40 minutes)
  • Check images
  • Next command
the vision for space exploration
The Vision for Space Exploration
  • Complete ISS assembly and retire Shuttle
  • Build new human spacecraft (CEV) for transport
  • beyond LEO
  • Return to the Moon with people and robots to
  • explore and prepare for voyages beyond
  • Human missions to Mars and other destinations
slide18

Vision for Space Exploration

  • Autonomous robots
    • Construction robots, pavers, diggers
  • Robotic assistants
    • Field assistant, habitat assembly
  • Human-controlled robots
    • Remote-controlled from Earth or locally
  • Telepresence robots
    • Used by crews on Moon and scientists on Earth; pre-reconnaissance of geological targets
    • Use to conduct real field work?
    • Will TP robots replace human geologists?
a possible strategy
A possible strategy
  • Have robots to do what they can do
  • Use robots to conduct reconnaissance at exploratory sites
  • Let people do follow-up field study
  • Make equipment that deploys automatically (no ALSEP)
  • However, design systems to allow people to intervene when things get hung-up or broken
  • The actual mix of activities and development of an operational paradigm is in itself a research topic
vision for space exploration
Vision for Space Exploration

Teleoperation of humanoid robotics with medium-range time delays

  • –many DOF
  • –1.5-10s round-trip delay, e.g. for lunar operations
  • –delay can introduce instability

Various approaches have been studied and used:

  • – “bump and wait”
  • – predictive display
  • – supervisory control
telepresence
Telepresence
  • What’s really required?
    • Stereo HD vision
    • Tactile feedback
    • Mobility
    • Dexterity
  • Anthropomorphism
    • How significant is the presence”effect?
    • Multiple limbs, eyes, end-effectors
    • Single-or multi-operator control?
  • Augmented sensory capability
    • Multi-spectral vision
    • In situ analysis: what and how much?
  • Control time lags
    • Maximum permissible
    • How does “presence”effect degrade with increasing time lag?
conclusions
Conclusions

Robotic activities when humans arrive on the Moon (or before)

  • – perform work, construction
  • – operational (support) tasks

Different levels of autonomy will play an important role

  • – tele-operation needed for first robots to arrive on the Moon
  • Moon base expansion through tele-operated robots in difficult situations

Human/Robotic Exploration of Mars

  • Earth Return Vehicle operations
  • Entry, Descent and Landing
  • Operations on the surface: human-robot interaction