Standing on the Shoulders of GiantsGreat Discoveries at the University of Chicago
A History of the University of Chicago, the Hospital and Pritzker Moira O’Riordan October 11, 2006
The Old University of Chicago • 1857 Baptist prep school founded Senator Stephen A. Douglas • Expanded quickly to have college, medical and law departments
Old University of Chicago • Baptist Union Theological Seminary founded 1867, now the Divinity School is the remaining legacy of the school • Closes 1886 due to financial difficulties
“The best investment I ever made” • 1890 the American Baptist Education Society and John D Rockefeller pledge funding • Marshall Field donated the land in the recently annexed suburb Hyde Park
William R Harper • First president • modeled the university on Amercian-style liberal arts college and German-style graduate research university
The “new” University of Chicago • Harper envisioned a university that was “’bran splinter new,’ and yet as solid as the ancient hills” • Major innovation • Run classes year round in a quarters format to allow students to graduate at anytime a year • First class on a Saturday at 8:30 at 10/1/1892
Hutchins’ School • 5th president, 1929 until 1945 • Established the core curriculum • Focus on original documents and classics • Small classes taught by professors • Comprehensive exams
Building a Medical School • 1898 temporary association with Rush Medical College with “the distinct purpose of the University to establish a Medical School when the funds shall have been provided” Harper • Dean of the Medical School was Frank Billings • Preclinical teaching done at University of Chicago and clinical clerkships finished at Rush (officially terminated 1941)
Hospital at the University • 1917 money was raised to start an independent hospital • Thwarted by the war • October1927 The University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics opens • Including the Albert Merrit Billings Hospital
Revolutionary Ideas • Original concept of medical education was to be part of an University with full-time faculty • Flexner report in 1910 just upheld Harper’s original intent. • Allowed paying patients to be teaching cases • “all cases to be admitted to the clinic or hospital shall be service cases […] no case shall be assigned or admitted to the care of any individual physician […] any case [...] shall be available in so far as the patient condition permits for the purpose of teaching and study” March 1927 policy statement of the Board of Trustees of the University
University of Chicago System • True, fulltime, full salaried medical faculty • University ownership and management of the general hospital • Commitment to research • Functional division of labor with in medical school departments
Billings Hospital • Only medicine and surgical departments • (pathology apart of the university) • 215 bed hospital
First Patients • Medicine Unit 1 • Victor S 21 y/o M presents with sore and bleeding gums • Dx with infection, confirmed with Cx and Tx with salvarsan • Pt followed at U of C Hospitals until 1965 when records transferred to Florida hospital • Surgery Unit 9 • Marian L P 21 y/o M admitted per request of Dr Phemister • c/o stiff L elbow since fall 5 yrs prior • Arthoplasy preformed for ankylosis of the elbow • “operation was unqualified success” stated the patient
Considered the first people to do all four years at U of C Initially the hospital could not accommodate all the students from the preclinical years William Wexford Redfern 8/29 Sylvia H Bensly 12/30 * Isee Lee Connell 3/31 Llewellys P Howell 3/31 Archibald R McIntyre 6/31 Joseph Johnson 6/31 (Dean of Howard University Medical School) Grahan A Kernweig 8/31 * James L O’Leary 8/31 George R Crisler 8/31 Normand L Hoerr 8/31 * William B Stern 8/31 Edward R Terrell 8/31 Donald E Yochen 8/31 First Graduates
Pritzker School of Medicine • Named for the Pritzker family, founders of the Hyatt hotel group (1968)
Pritzker School of Medicine • Named for the Pritzker family, founders of the Hyatt hotel group (1968) • Donated $12 million dollars
Dallas B Phemister • Started the department of surgery • 1930s proved that most cases of surgical shock are caused by loss of blood • chief interests were in the field orthopedics • work on bone growth, bone grafting, tumors of bone, the arrest of longitudinal growth in young bones and the healing of fractures. • Eponymous Phemister graft • autogenous bone graft applied on the outside of an injured bone, used in treating delayed union of a fracture.
Lowell Coggeshall • Tested chloroquine • generally considered too toxic for use, as a remedy for malaria • established a safe and effective dosage schedule and chloroquine became the standard treatment to suppress acute attacks of the disease. • Dean of the Biological Sciences Division and the Medical School of the University of Chicago for 16 years • Reshaped the AAMC into an effective voice for academic medicine.
Joseph Bolivar De Lee • Father of modern obstetrical care • 1930 founded Chicago lying hospital • Free prenatal care and free home deliveries • First delivery 5/25/1930 • Opened he first premature infant nurseries • Took the first medical motion pictures • Pioneered the study of toxemia in pregnancy
Charles B Huggins • Phemister invited him to be head of urology • Nobel Prize in Medicine 1966 for work in prostate CA and hormones • 1939 A.J. 75 y/o M PMH prostate CA and bone mets • Experimentally removed testes 10/16/37and CA regressed • Pt died of MI at 88 • 1951 showed breast Ca regression with removal of ovaries • 1959 designed the standard experimental model for hormone sensitive breast CA Caught “good in infection” as he called it “the need and urge to investigate”
Medical Discoveries-- blood • Dr. Oswald Robertson • Discovered a way to preserve blood during WW1 • Open the first civilian blood bank after the war • Eugene Goldwasser • 1954 discovered the basic principles behind the action of erythropoietin • 1977 isolated EPO
Medical Discoveries-- infections • Dr. Howard Ricketts • Showed that Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is caused by a microbe spread by ticks • Dr. Alexander A. Maximow • provided a new understanding of tuberculosis in the 1920s when he reproduced the disease in lung tissue isolated from rabbits and traced the entire progress of the disease under the microscope • Wei-Jen Tang • Discovered the structure of edema factor, one of the three toxins that make anthrax deadly, and the drugs to treat it
Medical Discoveries-- DM • Robert R. Bensley • demonstrated that the islets of Langerhans were specialized elements of the pancreas • developed staining methods that distinguished between alpha cells and the beta cells that produce insulin • fundamental to the discovery of insulin • later developed techniques to disassemble cells and isolate cellular components by spinning them in a centrifuge • in 1934 to isolate mitochondria and analyze them.
Medical Discoveries-- DM • Dr. Franklin McLean • 1914 first to measure the level of glucose in the blood • Dr. Donald Steiner • 1965 discovered the double-chain hormone insulin is made in the pancreas as proinsulin • discovered that the body cleaves off the segment connecting the two chains to produce insulin • Proinsulin was the first "pro-hormone" to be discovered
Medical Discoveries--DM • Dr. Graeme Bell • genetic studies of type 2 diabetes • 1991 landmark paper, the Bell lab mapped MODY1, the gene responsible for an unusual form of early-onset diabetes • In 1992, they found MODY2.
Medical Discoveries-- GI • Dr. Walter L. Palmer • established the first full-time academic gastroenterology section in the United States in 1927. • Dr. Rudolph Schindler • 1934 fleeing Nazi Germany, brought the first gastroscope to the United States for use at the University of Chicago
Dr. Walter Palmer demonstrated that the mechanism of pain in peptic ulcers is related to the presence of acid, not to contractions of the stomach. Dr. Lester G. Dragstedt demonstrated that ulcers are caused by excess secretion of normal gastric juice and developed the vagotomy operation for the treatment of ulcers in 1943. This operation, still used today, severs the vagus nerve where it connects to the stomach, decreasing gastric secretion. Medical Discoveries-- GI
Medical Discoveries-- transplant • Dr. Alexis Carrel • a pioneer in cardiac surgery • developed the technique for joining severed ends of blood vessels together making organ transplantation possible • performed the first heart transplant, on a dog, at the University of Chicago in 1904 • received a Nobel Prize for his transplant work in 1912, the first awarded in physiology or medicine for work done in America.
Medical Discoveries-- transplant • Dr. Leon Jacobson • first bone marrow transplant was performed at the University of Chicago in the late 1940s • discovered that he could save a mouse, whose bone marrow and spleen had been destroyed with radiation, by transplanting donated spleen tissue into the mouse
Medical Discoveries-- transplant • Dr. Christoph Broelsch • performed the first liver transplant using a segment of a cadaver liver while at the University of Hannover in 1984 • here he performed the first segmental transplant in the United States (1985) • the first split-liver transplant (one donor, two recipients) in the United States (1988) • developed the technique for transplantation from a living donor • performed the first living-donor liver transplant in the United States in November 1989 (which turned out to be the first successful living-donor liver transplant in the world).
Medical Discoveries-- transplant • The University of Chicago was until recently the only center in the country using living liver donors • 1993, the University of Chicago performed the first liver transplant from an unrelated living donor, a close family friend of a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis whose relatives were medically ineligible to donate.
Medical Discoveries-- genetics • Dr. Alf Alving • Part of the team to discover a safe effective dosing schedule • Develops a method to measure drug levels in blood and urine • Suggested using prison inmates as subjects • Tested other compounds and discovered primaquine • Noted that ~10% of inmates had their blood destroyed by the drug
Medical Discoveries-- genetics • Dr. Paul Carson • Took the final critical steps and discovered the G6DP deficiency • First time a “genetic fault” showed to be due to a biochemical error
Medical Discoveries-- Genetics • Dr. Janet Rowley • Discovered the first consistent chromosomal abnormalities linked to cancer, demonstrating cancer is a genetic disease • Spent her entire professional career at Chicago • Won the National Medical of Science 1999
Medical Discoveries-- nutrition • Paul R. Cannon • 1940s developed the "rat depletion model," which he used to determine the minimum daily requirements for the essential amino acids, calories and potassium • also discovered the relationship between a shortage of dietary protein and decreased immune function.
Medical Discoveries-- public health • A series of deaths caused by one of the early "sulfa" drugs in 1937 • Investigated by pharmacologist Dr. Eugene M.K. Geiling and pathologist Dr. Paul R. Cannon • found that the toxicity was caused by the solvent, diethyleneglycol, and not the antibacterial agent • used of rabbits and dogs to assess the toxicity of new drugs • recommendations for safeguards for preclinical testing formed the basis of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1938, which gave power to the Food and Drug Administration to regulate testing of drugs destined for human use.
Medical Discoveries-- public health • J. Roy Blayney • founding director of the University's Zoller Dental Clinic • conducted a 15-year experiment (1946-61) in the Chicago suburbs of Oak Park (no fluoride) and Evanston (added fluoride) • demonstrated the cavity-fighting ability of fluoride in drinking water and led to the widespread fluoridation of municipal water supplies.
Maroon Pride Things to know about the U of C
Football power house? • Coach Amos Alonzo Stagg • Practice began the same day as classes • First game 10/22 tie with Northwestern • Innovations the tackling dummy, the huddle, the T formation, the reverse and man in motion plays, the lateral pass, uniform numbers, and awarding varsity letters • 1896 Charter member of the Western Conference-- aka Big 10 • won seven Big Ten football championships from 1899 to 1924.
First Heisman • 1935, Jay Berwanger
Manhattan Project • December 2 1942 conducted the first controlled, self-sustained, nuclear chain reaction • Under an abandoned squash court adjacent to Stagg Field aka Chicago pile-1
Agent Orange • Powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the US Military during the Vietnam War • When sprayed on broad-leaf plants, it induces uncontrolled growth, eventually killing tem • Developed in the laboratory of Professor EJ Kraus during WWII • tichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D for short) • Chairman on the botany department • Contacted the War Department thinking it may be useful, no use found by the end of that war • Used in everyday life for controlling weeds
Maroon Pride • Most Nobel Laureates of any school in the world • At last count 79 • Only school (of its age) to never have admissions quotas • The Chicago School of Economics
Maroon Pride • Regenstein is the largest “browsable” university library in the US
Maroon Pride • Regenstein is the largest “browsable” university library in the US • Regenstein made his fortune inventing the clear plastic envelope window • Crerar was once a public library located on Michigan Ave