Singing as means of cultural identity ‘against’ globalisation Xavier Baulies
Introduction • Diversity of musical history linked to the geographical and sociological realities is the basis form which choral music at local level keeps the identity of ways of thinking, feeling and singing. • Beyond this, there is a determinant role of the voice itself and language to harmonically color music and preserve cultural identity. • In this respect the analysis of transparency of vowels, use of consonants and proper vocal technique, oriented to strong and artistic communication, can provide a better understanding on the capacity of a given choral music to sustain local culture against globalization.
Index • diversity of musical history • geographical and sociological realities • natural intonation and temperaments • voice, language and communication • transparency of vowels, use of consonants and proper vocal technique • a capella artistic communication • thinking, feeling and singing
1. Diversity of musical history • History: (from Local and Region to Global): • India, Europe, America • Asia • Africa, Australia • Instruments (perception of Harmony) Voice, Drums, Strings, Other Metal and Brass • Temperament evolution: Natural Intonation and Equal Temperament (Tonality Modulation)
1. Diversity of musical history • History (from Local and Region to Global): • India -> Europe …-> America • India <-> Asia • Africa • Australia
1. Diversity of musical history Materials (2 interrelated ways of vibration) : • projection of voice and resonance (from human musical imagination to instrument construction) • perception of Pitch, Harmony and Rhythm (from universe to human musical perception) Instruments: Voice, Drums, Strings, Other Metal and Brass
1. Diversity of musical history… • Temperament evolution: from Natural intonation to Equal Temperament (Tonality Modulation and equal use of tones) Misunderstanding of the concept: ‘BACH Well-tempered clavier’ as an Equal Temperament rather than an asymmetric one Reference: Bradley Lehman Singing effect in Europe and North America: ‘Long major thirds and short fifths’
B# = C E# A# D# G# B# is not equal to C There is a COMMA
BACH’s diagram Bach's diagram shows a tuning sequence. Starting at F-C, C-G etc, go clockwise around the circle. Temper the 5ths narrow by 1/6 (2/12) comma, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 0, 0, 0, 1/12, 1/12, 1/12.
2. Voice, language and communication • Key point for choral resilience at local level: ‘Every language have transparency of vowels, specific use of consonants and proper vocal technique, historically associated to emotion and feeling’ ‘Every culture need to develop musical language and to promote quality composers to build up complexity’
2. Voice, language and communication • The voice can be seen as a balance between projection and resonance two inseparable axes of energy • Where is clarity? (pitch and language) • Where is darkness? (harmony and timber)
2. Voice, language and communication • a capella artistic communication • Dynamic intonation of choral performance ‘orchestral’ adaptation to emotion • Ways of thinking, feeling and singing Use of technical support: Piano (not as basis for harmonic intonation) Alexander Technique Psychophysical coordination Inner Game of Music Awareness, Will and Trust Language pronunciation
Catalonia’s choral vitality • 120 federated children choirs • 450 federated adult choirs Internet access to Catalan repertoire and coordinated activity Interest for training courses for conductors and singers Increasing number of auditoriums and concerts Positive ‘2003 Europa Cantat’ effect?
Examples: • Cantarina Choir (Czech Women's Choir) Baba yetu (African song) Siyahamba Uz Mne Kone Vyvadeji (Czech folk song) • The Boys Choir of Kenya Auma Chapia Jowi KitiKiti Papale Pitie • Eric Whitacre Waternight