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Organizational Management. Architect & Design 8 th Semester Intrepreneurship Lise Kofoed & Frances Jørgensen. Agenda. Defining Intrapreneurship What is Project Leadership Types of projects (Project) Team Roles Project Leadership: Characteristics & Functions. What is an intrapreneur?.

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organizational management

Organizational Management

Architect & Design

8th Semester


Lise Kofoed & Frances Jørgensen

  • Defining Intrapreneurship
  • What is Project Leadership
  • Types of projects
  • (Project) Team Roles
  • Project Leadership: Characteristics & Functions
what is an intrapreneur
What is an intrapreneur?

…a person within a corporation who

takes direct responsibility for turning an idea into a profitable finished product through assertive risk-taking and innovation.

The intrapreneur is often the organizational maverick; the one who challenges the status

quo and is only satisfied initiating changes

from within.

why do we need intrapeneurs
Why do we need intrapeneurs?
  • "As competition intensifies, the need for creative thinking increases.   It is no longer enough to do the same thing better... no longer enough to be efficient and solve problems.   Far more is needed.   Now business has to keep up with changes... And that requires creativity.   That means creativity both at a strategic level and also on the front line, to accompany the shift that competitive business demands... from administration to true entrepreneurship.”

Edward de Bono


The real measure of success is the number of experiments

that can be crowded into 24 hours. Thomas Edison

project leadership vs project management
Project Leadership vs. Project Management
  • (Project)leadership: “the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations” (Kouzes & Posner, 1995, p.30).
  • (Project) management is a function that must be exercised in any business; (project) leadership is a relationship between leader and led that can energize an organization.
project leadership
Project Leadership
  • Managing the visible and invisible team to achieve the objectives of the stakeholders.
    • Those directly involved (the visible team)
    • Those indirectly involved (the invisible team)
    • All with an interest in the outcome (multiple stakeholders)
  • Also involves managing organizational networking, and taking the organizational context and the people factor into consideration.
types of projects
Types of Projects
  • Concrete projects: we know from the start the expected outcome or deliverable, as well as the projected available resources and time constraints.
  • Examples: a construction project, installation of a new system or process; new product lauch.
  • Characteristics include: full time leader as conductor of the orchestra; full-time visible team, well-established systems for planning and managing the various elements.
types of projects cont d
Types of Projects (cont’d)
  • Occasional projects: we have a general theme, but the boundaries and deliverables are not clearly defined; not certain from start who/what will be involved; temporary; often internally-focused, less formal
  • Examples: introducing TQM, defining and implementing a new product development process; establishing a strategy for entering a new market.
  • Characteristics: part time leadership as sculptor; part-time team membership; unfamiliar planning and control methods; guesstimated resources.
types of projects cont d10
Types of Projects (cont’d)
  • Open projects: we have an idea but no defined objectives, or outcomes; objectives and outcomes change frequently.
  • Examples: research laboratories experimenting with new drugs; applying more empowering work practices; trying out applications for untried technology.
  • Characteristics: no formal leader (the mole); team members are self-selected by interests; low priority; no realistic guesstimates of necessary resources; low visibility; often produce significant innovations!

Belbins Team Roles

  • Fill out the questionnaire by diving 10 points (from 2-4) within each of the 7 sections.
what it takes to be a project leader
What it takes to be a project leader
  • Common characteristics in every project leader’s role (and not necessarily in managerial role):
    • Often goes beyond a matrix of responsibility and authority; lacking codes of practice;
    • Defines own success criteria
    • Establishes own lines of contact
    • Responsible for identifying and obtaining own resources
project leader functions
Project Leader Functions
  • The project leader is an integrator, one who can pull together all of the activities of the project while watching out for any broken or missing links; one whose expertise lies in being able to integrate own and others’ strengths and capabilities to the fullest.
project leader functions cont d
Project Leader Functions (cont’d)
  • Providing purpose and
  • direction
  • Clarifying individual
  • success criteria
  • Being tough on quality
  • Creating a supportive
  • culture
  • Reflecting
  • Celebrating success
  • Secure stakeholder’s agreement
  • Build creativity
  • Networking
  • Marketing
  • Anticipating
  • Continuous Planning and Reviewing
  • Informing
  • Seeking feedback
understanding the big picture
Understanding the Big Picture
  • In Japan: 80% of project time goes to active planning & experimentation; 20% to implementation.
  • In the West: 20% of project time goes to planning; 80% to implementation.
  • ”Up front time” ensures that Big Picture is clear and simple for all; provides a sense of purpose & direction.
  • Seeing the Big Picture may require stepping back from formal objectives to understand why the project is important.
understanding the big picture cont d
Understanding the Big Picture (cont’d)
  • What are the strategic pressures?
  • What are the consumer pressures?
  • What are the environmental pressures (political, social, economic)?
  • It is the project leader’s job to define the context of the project so that the team can develop a shared project vision.
assessing project risks
Assessing Project Risks
  • Identifying actual and possible risks at the start of the project allows for contingency planning and ensures that all are clear on what is involved; one method is referred to as project risk mapping:
    • Brainstorm
    • Review past experiences
    • Cluster & weight topics
    • Develop plans for most serious & probable risks
    • Develop overall project plan taking these into consideration (e.g. in time plans)
    • Consider efforts to reduce risks
managing the sponsor
Managing the Sponsor
    • What do you need from the sponsor?
    • What can you expect from the sponsor?
    • How does the project appear from the sponsor’s perspective (between customer and project team)?
    • What political forces should be considered?
  • The sponsor should be involved in the early planning stages to establish guidelines (e.g. budget) and the framework (e.g. project type); there should be regular contact throughout the project.
  • Project leadership requires the ability to read and manage political dynamics.
  • The process by why clarity, agreement, and commitment are obtained (overt); helps key players to imagine the project’s implications (and how to plan for them).
  • Explicitly imagining the entire project cyle