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Trabajo publicado en www.ilustrados.com La mayor Comunidad de difusión del conocimiento. Material Complementario Título: Las Preposiciones Autores: Lic: Katia García Hernández Lic. Rene Arenas Gutiérrez Téc: Nimia Salazar Hernández

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Trabajo publicado en www.ilustrados.com

La mayor Comunidad de difusión del conocimiento

Material Complementario

Título: Las Preposiciones

Autores: Lic: Katia García Hernández

Lic. Rene Arenas Gutiérrez

Téc: Nimia Salazar Hernández

E-Mail:nimia@fcmjtrigo.sld.cu

Febrero 2006

ndice
Índice
  • Introducción ………………3
  • Desarrollo………………….4-15
  • Datos de los autores ……….16
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Introducción

Las preposiciones son palabras muy útiles, pero también muy difíciles de usar correctamente en cualquier idioma. Sin embargo, para leer en Inglés el lector sólo debe conocer que cada preposición suele tener uno o dos significados básicos, aunque tenga otras posibilidades de traducción. Después debe adiestrarse en cambiar la traducción literaria de una preposición del Inglés al pasarla al español si eso fuera necesario por su uso en nuestra lengua materna. Por ejemplo, en inglés se dice: The man in the white suit, que equivale a decir en español: El hombre del traje blanco.

Igualmente en una frase como:...a package from Spain, la preposición from significa desde (lugar de procedencia); en español se dice:...un paquete de España.

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Desarrollo

Uno debe familiarizarse completamente con las preposiciones más usuales y significados básicos, tal y como aparecen a continuación. Pero debe tener presente que con frecuencia tendrá que recurrir al diccionario para buscar otros significados cuando compruebe que los que aquí se presentan no se adecuan al contexto determinado que está leyendo.

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after después

against contra

along a lo largo de, junto con

among entre

at en

before ante

behind tras, detrás

below bajo

beneath bajo

beside al lado de

between entre

beyond detrás de, más allá de

but excepto, a excepción de

by por, al lado de

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concerning respecto a

despite a pesar de

down bajo

during durante

except a excepción de, excepto

for para, por, durante

from desde, de

in en

in front of delante

inside dentro

in regard to respecto a

in spite of a pesar de

into hacia adentro

like como

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near cerca

next to al lado de

of de

on sobre

outside fuera de

over encima, sobre

regarding respecto a

since desde

through a través de

till hasta

throughout a través de, a lo largo de

to a, para

toward(s) hacia

under bajo

underneath bajo, debajo

until hasta

up arriba

upon en, sobre

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with con

within dentro de

without sin

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A REVIEW OF PREPOSITIONS:

A preposition is used to connect nouns and noun structures in the sentece. A noun structure following the preposition is called the object of the preposition.

The object of the preposition can be:

A noun: We gave a present to our secretaries.

A pronoun: We gave a present to them.

A gerund: We thought about giving a present to them.

A noun clause: We thought about giving a present to whoever worked for us.

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Placement of prepositions:

The preposition is usually placed before the object. But it may be placed at the end of a sentece in:

A question: Which country did you go to?

An adjetive clause: This map shows the countries which we went to.

A noun clause: We forget which countries we went to.

An adjectival prepositional phrase is placed after the noun it modifies.

The book on the desk is mine.

The dog next door bothers me.

An adverbial prepositional phrase, like any adverb, may be placed anywhere in the sentece. Or it may be placed at the:

End: I came at nine o’clock.

Middle: He leaves in two hours to visit his friends.

Beginning: On Monday, I have my French class.

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Types of prepositions:

There are one-and two-word prepositions:

One-word: in, at, over, among

Two-word: next to, instead of

There are times when prepositions can be used without objects. At such times, they no longer function as prepositions but become either (1) two-word verbs; (2) adverbs; or(3) conjuctions.

Two-word verbs (verb+particle)

Examples: bring up (raise) find out (discover)

call off (cancel) catch on (understand)

These combinations have idiomatic meanings.

Adverb:

Example: Did you take the elevator? No, we walked up.

Conjuctions:

Examples: He came before I did.

Please, come before the meeting starts.

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Prepositions:

Prepositions show relationships in time and space and relationships between ideas (logical relationships).

Learn the set phrases with prepositions of space.

Harry lives in Denver. (a city)

inColorado. (a state or province)

on Green Avenue. (street without a number)

at 261 Green Avenue. (street with a number)

in Room 261 or Apartment 210-A. (specific room or apartment)

Harriet’s friend live in Canada. (country)

At or away from home.

On a farm.

In a dormitory, house, student hostel.

In poverty, wealth, a city, a suburb, a town, a village.

In the South, West. (region or section)

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The plane landed in Chicago

At O’Hare Airport

At the Chicago airport.

Harriet lives at 261 Green Avenue, Denver, Colorado.

The plane landed at O’Hare Airport, Chicago.

We are going to visit my cousin in Denver.

He is in college.

At the university.

Their house is (located) on the beach.

On the ocean.

At the shore.

In the mountains.

On the river, bay, lake.

In the dessert.

On the plains.

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Note: When you do not put a preposition between different pieces of information about a place, use a comma.

Prepositions that show apace and movement often introduce essential information that tells you wich one. These phrases are adjetive phrases and follow the noun or pronoun they modify.

The buses in the city run every ten minutes.

The houses on the bay were damaged by the hurricane.

Learn the set phrases of time.

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Paul always comes at ten o’clock. (specific time)

On time.

In time for class.

Paul visited Canada in 1980. (year)

In May. (month)

On May 18. (date)

On Wednesday. (day of the week)

In the morning, afternoon, evening, daytime, the right.

At noon, midnight, night.

datos de los autores
Datos de los Autores
  • MSc: Katia C. García Hernández

Profesor Principal Inglés Instituto

Profesor Auxiliar Inglés

Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”

  • Nimia Salazar Hernández

Asistente Técnico docente de Informática

Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”

  • MSc: René Arenas Gutiérrez

Jefe de Departamento Investigaciones

Profesor Auxiliar Informática

Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”