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MENOPAUSE. 1.The cessation of menses is menopause.The climacteric and perimcnopausal are the periods of waning ovarian function. 90. 90. 2 .Female life expectancy. 80. 80. 70. 70. 60. 60. 50. 50. Age of menopause. 40. 40. 1850. 1900. 1950. 2000.

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menopause
MENOPAUSE
  • 1.The cessation of menses is menopause.The climacteric and perimcnopausal are the periods of waning ovarian function.
slide2

90

90

2.Female life expectancy

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

Age of menopause

40

40

1850

1900

1950

2000

Age of menopause and female life expectancy.

3 symptoms and signs of ovarian failure
3.SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF OVARIAN FAILURE

(1) Menstrual Cycle Alterations

Soon after an adolescentwoman has her first menstrual cycle, regular, predictable menstrual cycles are established that continue until approximately 40 years of age. Around 40 years, the number of ovarian follicles becomes substantially depleted and subtle changes occur in the frequency and length of menstrual cycles.

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A woman may note shortening or lengthening of her cycles. The luteal phase of the cycle remains constant at 13 to 14 days, whereas the variation of cycle length is related to a change in the follicular phase. Women in their 20s and 30s ovulate 13 to 14 times per year. Several years in advance of menopause, the frequency of ovulation decreases to 11 to 12times per year and, with advancing reproductive age, may decrease to 3 to 4 times per year.

slide5

With the change in reproductive cycle length and frequency ,there are concomitant changes in the plasma concentration of FSH and LH . More FSH is required to stimulate follicular maturation .Beginning in the late 30s and early 40s, the concentration of FSH begins to increase . This is the frist chemical evidence of ovarain failure.

slide6

The 5- to 10-year period before menopause is termed perimvenopause.During the perimenopausal years, women begin to experience symptoms and signs of estrogen deficiency as reproductive function becomes increasingly inefficient. Realative change in FSH as a function of life are presented in Table 38.1.

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(2)Hot Flushes and Vasomotor Instability

Coincident with the change in reproductive cycle length and frequency, the hot flush is the first physical manifestation of ovarian failure. Occasional hot flushes begin several years before actual menopause. The hot flush is the most common symptom of impending ovarian failure. More than 95% of perimenopausal women experience hot flushes.

3 sleep disturbances
(3)Sleep Disturbances
  • Ovarian failure with consequent declining estradiol induces a change in a woman’s sleep cycle so that restful sleep becomes difficult and for some, impossible. The latent phase of sleep(I.e,the time required to fall asleep) is lengthened; the actual period of sleep is shortened.
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Therefore,perimenopausal and postmenopausal women complain of having difficulty falling asleep and of waking up soon after going to sleep. This is one of the most disabling and least appreciated adverse effects of menopause. The sleep cycle is restored to the premenopausal state by the administration of replacement estrogens.

4 vaginal dryness and genital tract atrophy
(4)Vaginal Dryness and Genital Tract Atrophy
  • The vaginal mucosa, cervix, endocervix, endometrium, myometrium, and uroepithelium are estrogen-dependent tissues. With decreasing estrogen production, these tissues become atrophic, resulting in various symptoms. The vaginal epithelium becomes thin and cervical secretions diminish.
slide11

Women experience vaginal dryness while attempting or having sexual intercourse, leading to diminished sexual enjoyment and dyspareunia. Atrophic vaginitis also may present with itching and burning. The thinned epithelium is also more susceptible to becoming infected by local flora.

  • Therapy with replacement estrogens restores the integrity of the vaginal epithelium,relieving symptoms of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia.Sexual pleasure is often restored.
5 mood changes
(5)Mood Changes
  • Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women often complain of volatility of affect. Some women experience depression, apathy, and “crying spells.” These may be caused directly by estrogen deficiency, by estrogen-deficiency associated sleep disturbance, or by both. Not only are these emotional symptoms disturbing to a woman but also her inability to control these feeling is equally of concern.
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The physician should provide counseling and emotional support as well as medical therapy. The role of estrogons in central nervous system function is unknown. However, it is well established that sex steroid hormone receptors are present in the central nervous system. Estrogen replacement in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women often diminishes these mood swings.

6 skin hair and nail changes
(6)Skin,Hair,and Nail Changes
  • Estrogen influences skin thickness. With declining estrogen production, skin tends to become thin, less elastic, and eventually more susceptible to abrasion and trauma. Estrogen replacement helps restore the thickness and elasticity of skin. Estrogen therapy also helps to slow the formation of wrinkles.
7 osteoporosis
(7)Osteoporosis
  • Bone demineralization is a natural consequence of aging. Diminishing bone density occurs in both men and women. However, the onset of bone demineralization occurs 15 to 20 years earlier in women than in men by virtue of acceleration after ovarian function ceases. Bone demineralization not only occurs with natural menopause but also has been reported in association with decreased estrogen production in certain groups of young women.
8 cardiovascular lipid changes
(8)Cardiovascular Lipid Changes
  • With approaching ovarian failure, changes occur in the cardiovascular lipid profile. Total cholesterol increases, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreases and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases.
4 management of menopause
4.Management of Menopause

All of the signs and symptoms, and adverse effects, of menopause result from declining estradiol-17B production by the ovarian follicles. Exogenous estrogen adminstration to the perimenopausal and postmenopausal woman obviates most of these changes. Estradiol-17B and its metabolic byproducts, estrone and estriol, are used for replacement.

5 cautions in estrogen replacement
5.Cautions in Estrogen Replacement
  • Patients with unexplained abnormal vaginal bleeding should not receive estrogen-replacement therapy untile the cause of the bleeding is ascertained and treated appropriately. In addition, patients with active liver disease or chronically impaired liver function should generally not receive estrogen replacement.
1 carcinoma of the breast
(1)Carcinoma of the Breast
  • Carcinoma of the breast has been a contraindication to estrogen replacement. In light of the benefits of estrogen-replacement therapy in regard to osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, selected patients may not be considered inappropriate for estrogen-replacement therapy.
2 thromboembolic disease
(2)Thromboembolic disease
  • Oral estrogens stimulate the production of clotting factors,but estradiol administered by the transdermal route has no effect on clotting. Therefore, women with a history of thromboembolic disease can safely receive transdermal estradiol therapy.
3 endometrial carcinoma
(3)Endometrial Carcinoma
  • There is litter evidence to suggest that estrogens should be withheld from women with a history of carcinoma of the endometrium if the tumor was limited to the endometrium and myometrium. Women with metastatic endometrial carcinoma should not receive exogenous estrogens.