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Market Forms of Fresh Fish

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  1. Market Forms of Fresh Fish • Whole: the fish is literally untouched, without anything removed • Drawn: viscera/entrails/gut have been removed and stomach cavity cleaned • Dressed: gut, all fins, and scales are removed; sometimes head and tail also • Filleted and Trimmed: the flesh is removed from the bone and trimmed into fillets; skin also is removed at this stage • Portioned: fillets are cut into specifications © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Market Forms of Shellfish • Alive and Well: should be purchased and received alive • Shucked or Shelled: removed from shell and cleaned appropriately © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Classification of Fish • Round White • Vertical backbone • Fillet on either side • One eye on each side of the head • Flesh is white in color © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Classification of Fish • Round Oily • Vertical backbone • Fillet on either side • One eye on each side of the head • Flesh varies in color from shades of red to dark purple to off-white • Fat content varies from 26% for eel family to 12% for salmon family to 6% for herring family © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Classification of Fish • Flat White • Horizontal backbone with 2 fillets on either side • Both eyes on the topside of the head • Light-colored skin underneath, dark on top • Non-Bony • Have cartilage instead of bone • Examples: shark, rays © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Handling and Storage • Fresh Fish • Cleaned and gutted to preserve freshness • Gills should also be removed • Should be received on self-draining ice • Should be refrigerated at 35ºF to 40ºF as soon as received • Seal in plastic wrap if skinned when received • Should not come in contact with other foods • Should not be exposed to air unnecessarily © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Handling and Storage • Frozen Fish • Should be wrapped and sealed in moisture-proof and vapor-proof material • May be frozen by glazing • Commercially frozen should be placed in freezer in their original packaging, immediately after purchase • Store at 0ºF • Date packages for easy rotation © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Quality Points for Selection • Eyes should be bright and full, not sunken • Gills should be bright pinkish red in color • Flesh must be firm and springy, or elastic • Scales, if any, should be plentiful and firm and should not come off when handled • Should have a pleasant, salty smell • Skin should be shining and have a good color • Flesh of white fish should be really white, not yellowish • Should feel heavy in relation to size © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Staleness Indicators • Unpleasant ammoniac odor • Limp flesh retaining imprint • Sunken eyes with loss of clarity • Gills will be dull and discolored © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Quality Points for Selection of Shellfish • Confirm that they are alive • Crustaceans, such as lobsters, should be lively and defensive • Bivalves, such as mussels and clams, should generally have tightly closed shells—tapping an open one should cause it to close quickly • Univalves, such as snail and conch, are difficult to assess—poking the protected flesh in and around the aperture should cause a rapid withdrawal response • During cooking process of bivalves, the shells must open during boiling; if not they should be discarded © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Potential Yield of Fish • Yields will vary: • According to classification—flat or round • According to species • As size increases • Depending on cut used • If processed by inexperienced craftsperson © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Yield Calculations • Weight loss from scaling is 2% • Weight loss from skinning is 11% to 13% • Weight loss from gutting is 13% to 16% © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Fish Fabrication • Evisceration: • Wash and dry the fish with a clean cloth • Cut off all fins and trim the tail • Remove the eyes and trim the mouth if the fish is to be served whole • Remove the scales, if any, scraping with a knife or other scaling hook held at a 45º angle from tail to head • Remove the gills and entrails from the fill slits, also the roes, if any © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Fish Fabrication • Evisceration: • Remove the gills and stomach from a round fish, by making a small opening 2 inches in length from the vent to the belly; remove the gut and the roe with care so as not to damage it and create spillage • In the case of a flat fish, make the opening immediately behind the head of the fish where the gut is situated © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Fish Fabrication • Open the gill slit, on one side of the back of the head, with the fish on its side on the cutting board • Hold the gills firmly with the fingers of the left hand and with the fish shears cut the gill loose from both the left side, where it is attached to the throat, and the right side, where it is attached to the back of the gill slit © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Fish Fabrication • Evisceration • Repeat this operation on the other side of the fish until the gills are free • Using the tip of the knife and the thumb, draw out the entrails and the gills gently, taking care not to damage the flesh of the fish • Take care not to break the gut sack because this will create spillage and enhance spoilage © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Fish Fabrication • Evisceration • Wash the interior of the fish thoroughly under cold running water and while scraping the backbone with a knife to remove all traces of blood or liver from the backbone. • Rewash and dry the fish with a clean cloth. • Ice down and refrigerate • Any roe removed from the fish should be placed into cold water at once and rinsed with cold water until the rinse water runs clear © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Skinning Round Fish • Remove all dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins with a strong pair of shears • Make an incision with the tip of a knife around the head, loosening the skin from the head • Now loosen the skin along the length of the cut; then, starting at the head, pull the skin toward the tail in one stroke to remove the whole half-skin neatly • Repeat on the other side © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Skinning Flat Fish • First remove all fins from the fish using a sharp, strong pair of shears. • Cut through the skin across the middle of the tail and, with the tip of the fillet knife, scrape across the tail to loosen a few inches of skin • Now raise the skin from the flesh, placing the thumb of the right hand between the flesh and the skin • Hold the tail in the left hand; pull gently with the right hand and remove the skin cleanly from the flesh © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Skinning Flat Fish • Follow along the fish with the thumb of the left hand, loosening the skin from the fins on either side of the fish • The use of a little salt on the fingers, or better still, a clean cloth will ensure a firmer grip on the fish while skinning it • If salt is used to enhance grip, always wash salt off skin before using it to make stock © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  21. Filleting Round Fish • Ensure the fish has been washed and dried very well before beginning • Remove all fins and scales from the fish with sharp scissors and a scaling tool • Make an incision along the backbone from the head end to the tail, keeping your knife on the bone at all times • Continue to deepen the incision, scraping your knife over the fish ribs, holding the freed flesh in your other hand until the fillet starts to come free © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  22. Filleting Round Fish • Follow the bones without cutting the flesh until the whole fillet is removed • Repeat the process on the other side • This technique will yield 2 fillets © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  23. Filleting Flat Fish • Remove all fins from the fish and dry well • Make an incision down the center of the backbone from head to tail • Separate the flesh from the bone, moving the knife down the length of the fillet, moving back the flesh as you go • Continue to cut outward toward the fins, making sure your knife always stays on the bone until the fillet is completely removed • Remove the other fillet from that side by turning the fish around and starting from the tail to the head • Remove both fillets from the other side, yielding a total 4 fillets © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  24. Filleting Large Fish • Use a larger knife with a rigid blade and very fine edge • Always remove fins, scales, and any barbs • Use sharp strong poultry shears to aid in trimming the fish • Try to support the fillet as it is being removed to prevent it from splitting • Work on a very stable surface © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  25. Filleting Large Fish • Wear good gloves for better grip • Make sure the fish is as dry as possible © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  26. Cuts of Fish • Whole: appropriate when portion size and shape fit the plate • Darne: steak, sometimes called Côtelette; a slice from a large round fish on the bone • Demi-Darne: cut in half through the spine; done when the darne is too big for the plate • Tronçon: a slice or steak cut from a large flat fish on the bone • Fillet (filets): boneless, skinless portion of the fish achieved by completely boning the fish © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  27. Cuts of Fish • Double Fillet: removing 2 fillets at a time, leaving them attached, sometimes with skin on • Suprême (Medallion): applied to large fillets both from flat and round varieties • Boneless Darne: produced by butterflying a suprême into the shape of a darne • Goujon: strips of fish cut 3 inches × ¼ inch • Paupiette: applied to fillets of fish that are rolled and stuffed with mousseline or forcemeat into a barrel shape © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  28. Cuts of Fish • Plié: applied to fillets that are folded slightly flattened and then folded in two • En Tresse (Pleated or Braided Fillets): a fillet is cut into 3 strips, leaving them attached at one end and then braided or pleated for a fine presentation • Tournedo: using red-flesh fish cut into circles approximately 3 inches in diameter • Mignon: folded fillet, as for a cornet or triangular shape somewhat like a piping bag © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  29. Cuts of Fish • Delice: neatly folded, trimmed fillet that will be poached • Galette (Towered Fish): small fillets of equal size and width, or lightly beaten pieces of a larger fillet, and layered on top of one another with mousseline spread between each layer • Farci (Stuffed Whole): applied to small whole fish after boning and skinning, but with head and tail still attached; is stuffed with mousseline and reshaped © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  30. Cuts of Fish • Skin-Wrapped Fillet: large fillet of fish is used; belly is cut from the skin, leaving a square piece of fish about 2 inches on all sides; wrap the exposed fish with the flap of skin and tie well with string • Tartare of Fish: made from fish flesh that has been neatly cut into small dice, and seasoned with spices and other flavoring agents; served raw • Medusa-Style: fillet and skin whole fish, leaving head attached; cut each fillet into three strips (goujons) and dip in light batter to deep fry; serve upside-down, displaying goujons representing the snakes protruding from Medusa’s head © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  31. Cuts of Fish • Shaped Fish Fillets: trimmed fish fillets, which are then cut accurately into circles, diamonds, triangles, etc., with the trim used for other dishes © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  32. Prepared Fish • Colbert-Style (small flat fish): • Clean and prepare fish in the normal way • Skin; remove fins • Make an incision along the backbone on one side, as if to fillet, within an inch or so from sides and ends of sole • Neatly fold back fillets • Break backbone in 2 to 4 places, for easier removal after cooking © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  33. Prepared Fish • Wash, dry, season, flour, egg wash, and crumb • Deep-fry whole fish • When fully cooked, remove broken spine to expose cooked white fillets • Place colored compound butters within and serve © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  34. Prepared Fish • Colbert-Style (small round fish): • Skin fish or leave skin on, as desired • Remove gills and eyes • Wash and dry fish • Carefully remove the whole backbone, leaving 1 inch of the backbone and both fillets still attached to head and tail • Season, flour, egg wash, and bread crumb the whole fish • Apply vegetable spray to an ovenproof pan and stand coated fish as though it were swimming, but open to separate the two fillets • Bake until done © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  35. Prepared Fish • Curled Small Round Fish: • Skin as desired • Remove gill and eyes; force a knife through eye socket • Wash, dry, and season • Flour, egg wash, and bread crumb • Push tail through eye socket • Secure, if necessary, with cocktail pick • Deep-fry or bake until done © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  36. Colere Small Round Fish • Prepare as Colbert round fish • Place tail between needle-sharp teeth of fish • Bake until done © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  37. En Lorgnette Small Round Fish • Clean and skin as described • Remove backbone, leaving fillets attached to head • Season, flour, egg wash, and breadcrumb fillets • Roll each fillet toward head—the two fillets representing the glasses of a pince-nez, the head, and the handle © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  38. Shellfish • Mollusks • Two forms of mollusks: • Bivalves • Univalves • Shells • Invertebrates • Bodies divided into 4 sections: head, muscular foot, intestinal sac, and “mantle” • Respiration through gills © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  39. Bivalves • 8,000 species • Second largest class of mollusks • Shell consists of 2 parts joined by a dorsal hinge • When closed, completely covers shellfish • As a rule are immobile • When they do move, it is by means of the foot, which is stretched as far forward as possible, and then anchored to the ground or stationary object, so that the creature can drag itself slowly forward © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  40. Univalves • 105,000 known species • Largest class of mollusks • Spiral, univalve shell • Some gastropods without shells, some with simple shells © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  41. Crustaceans • Shrimp, crab, lobsters, crayfish, amphipods, isopods, ostracods, and barnacles • 50 million species • Shrimp, spiny and clawed lobsters, crayfish, common crabs, hermit crabs, robber crabs, spider crabs, mitten crabs, and stone crabs all belong to the order of decapods • Decapods move by swimming, crawling, strutting, or raking through soft ground © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  42. Cooking Live Lobsters • Classic Method: cut through nerve center by inserting a sharp, heavy knife where the head meets the body • Safest Method: To protect roe of female lobster, plunge the lobster into vigorously boiling court bouillon just long enough to set the proteins of the flesh; allow the liquid to return to boil after lobsters are added, and simmer for 2 to 3 minutes © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  43. Cooking Live Lobsters • To fully cook a lobster by boiling: • Allocate at least 1 gallon (3.8 L) of water per lobster • The flame must be set on high under the pot • The liquid must be fast boiling before the lobster is added • Hold under water for at least 2 minutes if blanching; the lobster should die within 15 seconds • If another preparation method is needed, remove after 2 minutes • For finished dishes, cook for an additional 6 minutes; shock to prevent overcooking © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  44. Cooking and Cleaning Crabs • Boil in salt water or sea water; if using tap water, add ½ cup (118 mL) of kosher salt to every gallon (3.8 L) of water • Let boil for 5 minutes, then cool quickly under running tap of cold water • Cleaning: • Hold the crab firmly in one hand and slide a sharp knife under the shell with the other • Use the knife as a lever to prize off the shell • Pull the shell away from the body © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  45. Cooking and Cleaning Crabs • Cleaning: • Remove and discard the “feathery” internal gills • Twist off all the legs and the claws • To expose the body’s white meat, cut it in half • Open and separate the halves • Dig out the white meat from the halves using the point of sharp knife • Crack the claws and legs with a hammer or nutcracker and extract their meat © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  46. Cleaning Shrimp • The head may be removed by using thumbs or a sharp knife • Place a thumb under the head, between the body’s shell and plate-like head, and quickly flick the thumb as if to toss a coin • Place the knife’s tip in the same location and forcefully cutting will sever the head © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  47. Cleaning Shrimp • Peeling: • Straighten shrimp’s body and pull apart the shell, starting between the legs • Deveining: • Make a shallow incision along the “back” to remove the contents of the alimentary canal (digestive system) that runs from head to tail, down the back edge of each shrimp; scrape away the dark entrails © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  48. Opening and Cleaning Scallops • To open the shell, hold the scallop with the flat shell uppermost • Probe between the shells with a short knife to find a small opening; insert the blade and run it across the roof of the shell • Separate the 2 halves of the shell and pull apart • Slide the blade under the grayish outer rim of the flesh, called the skirt, to free the scallop; pull away the muscle with a small knife © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

  49. Shucking Oysters • It is necessary to exert a lot of pressure to open oyster shells, so it is important that the angle of the knife, as well as the positioning of the towel holding the oyster, is given special attention, especially for safety reasons • Wrap the oyster in a towel and place it securely on a flat cutting surface with the small indentation in the end of the oyster facing outward; place the tip of the knife in this indentation. • Using a good deal of pressure, push the knife into the hinge; twist the knife back and forth in order to pry open the shell © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.