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Introduction. Theories of Counseling . Case Conceptualization. Case Conceptualization. Theoretical framework from which to understand or explain a client’s presenting concerns -- symptoms personality characteristics cognitions feelings behaviors . Case Conceptualization.

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introduction

Introduction

Theories of Counseling

case conceptualization3
Case Conceptualization
  • Theoretical framework from which to understand or explain a client’s
    • presenting concerns -- symptoms
    • personality characteristics
    • cognitions
    • feelings
    • behaviors
case conceptualization4
Case Conceptualization

Leads to specific

  • Explanations of origin of clients’ concerns
  • Counseling Goals
  • Counseling Interventions
major approaches
Major Approaches
  • Psychodynamic
    • Freud Psychoanalysis
    • Neo-Freudians (Objects Relations, Adler, Jung, Erikson, Sullivan Otto Rank)
  • Humanistic
    • Person Centered (Rogers)
    • Existential (Frankle, May, Yalom, Maslow)
    • Gestalt (Perls)
major approaches6
Major Approaches
  • Behavioral/Cognitive Behavioral
    • Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis)
    • Beck, Meichenbaum
  • Feminist
  • Post Modern Approaches
    • Brief Solution Focused Therapy
content of the course
Content of the course
  • Constructs that characterize the major psychological theories applied to counseling relationships
  • Application of major constructs to:
    • conceptualize clients presenting concerns
    • identify counseling goals and counseling interventions
is therapy effective which therapy is most effective
Is Therapy Effective?Which Therapy is Most Effective?
  • Fiedler, F. E. (1950). A comparison of therapeutic relationships in psychoanalytic, nondirective, and Adlerian therapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 14, 434-445.
  • Heine, R. W. (1953). A comparison of patients’ reports of psychotherapeutic experiences with psychoanalytic, nondirective, and Adlerian therapists. American Journal of Psychotherapists, 7, 16-23.
is therapy effective which therapy is most effective10
Is Therapy Effective?Which Therapy is Most Effective
  • Smith, M. L., & Glass, G.V. (1977). Meta-analysis of comparative therapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752-760
    • The average therapy patient is better off than 75% of untreated individuals.
  • Wampold, B. F. (2000)Outcomes of Individual Counseling and Psychotherapy: Empirical Evidence Addressing Two Fundamental Questions. (Chapter Handbook of Couseling Psych)
consumer report nov 1995 does therapy help
Consumer Report (Nov.1995). Does Therapy Help?

Among respondents who at the beginning of therapy felt very poor, at the end felt

44% very good; 54% a lot better

Among respondents who at the beginning of therapy felt fairly poor, at the end 43% felt improved

what components of treatment are responsible for therapy effects
What components of treatment are responsible for therapy effects?
  • Specific Ingredients
    • unique to each therapy approach
  • Common Factors
    • underlie most approaches: Relationship

Rosenzweig (1936) had proposed that “all methods of therapy when competently used are equally successful.”

components shared by approaches to psychotherapy wampold 2000
Components Shared by Approaches to Psychotherapy (Wampold, 2000)
  • Emotionally charged, confiding relationship
  • In a healing setting
  • Rationale, conceptual scheme, or myth to explains patient’s symptoms
  • There is a ritual or procedure that engages client and therapist based on the rationale (Frank & Frank, 1991).
common elements in therapeutic rituals and procedures 1 2
Common Elements in Therapeutic Rituals and Procedures (1/2)
  • The relationship helps combat clients’ feelings of alienation
  • The process of therapy provides hopefor improvement
  • Therapist provides new learning experiences
common elements in therapeutic rituals and procedures 2 2
Common Elements in Therapeutic Rituals and Procedures (2/2)
  • Client’s emotions are aroused as a result of therapy and the client expects to improve
  • Therapist enhances client’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy
  • Therapist provides opportunities for practice
wampold concluded that
Wampold concluded that:
  • Specific theoretical ingredients are notdifferentially related to outcome
  • Specific ingredients are necessary to construct a coherent treatment
    • In which therapists have faith, and
    • provides a convincing rational for clients
  • Therefore, knowledge of theoretical approaches is necessary to build coherent interventions and treatments
cpce and nce exams
CPCE and NCE Exams
  • Human Growth and Development
  • Social and Cultural Foundations
  • The Helping Relationship
  • Group Dynamics, Processes and Cng
  • Life Style and Career Development
  • Appraisal of Individuals
  • Research and Evaluation
  • Professional Orientation
iii the helping relationship
III. The Helping Relationship
  • Philosophic Bases
  • Counseling Theory
  • Counseling Practice
  • Consultation Theory
  • Consultation Practice