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  1. Displays and Instruments/Crew Station AIAA Team#4 Ken Min Kyle Nam

  2. Outline • FAR Requirements - Displays/Instruments - Crew Stations • Examples and Specific components • New developments

  3. FAR Pertaining to Instruments/Displays1 _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr25_main_02.tpl

  4. FAR Requirements:Flight and navigation instruments1 • Section § 25.1303 - Following instruments must be visible from each pilot station a) Free air temperature indicator b) Clock with displaying hours, minutes, and seconds, either analogue or digital c) Direction indicator (nonstabilized magnetic compass) - Following instruments must be installed at each pilot station a) Airspeed indicator b) Altimeter c) Rate of climb indicator d) Gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with an integral slip-skid indicator e) Bank and pitch indicator f) Direction indicator(gyroscopically stabilized, magnetic or nonmagnetic) _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.6.192.2&idno=14

  5. FAR Requirements:Flight and navigation instruments1 continued • Additional instruments required - An audible speed warning device is required for turbine engine powered airplanes and for airplanes with VMO/MMO greater than 0.8 VDF/MDF or 0.8 VD/MD, whenever the speed exceeds VMO plus 6 knots or MMO +0.01. (VMO/MMO: maximum operating limit speed, VDF/MDF: demonstrated flight diving speed, VD/MD: design diving speed) - A machmeter is required at each pilot station for airplanes withcompressibility limitations not otherwise indicated to the pilot by the airspeed indicating system required in the previous page. _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.6.192.2&idno=14

  6. FAR Requirements:Powerplant instruments1 • Section § 25.1305 - For all airplanes a) Fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank b) Oil quantity indicator for each oil tank c) Oil pressure indicator for each independent pressure oil system of each engine. d) An oil temperature indicator for each engine. e)Fire-warning devices that provide visual and audible warning. f) An augmentation liquid quantity indicator for each tank. _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.6.192.3&idno=14

  7. FAR Requirements:Powerplant instruments1 continued - For turbine engine-powered airplanes. a) A gas temperature indicator for each engine. b) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each engine. c) A tachometer for each engine. d) A means to indicate, to the flight crew, the operation of each engine starter that can be operated continuously but that is neither designed for continuous operation nor designed to prevent hazard if it failed. e) An indicator to indicate the functioning of the powerplant ice protection system for each engine. f) An indicator for the fuel strainer or filter required by §25.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with §25.997(d). g) A warning means for the oil strainer or filter required by §25.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter screen before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with §25.1019(a)(2). h) An indicator to indicate the proper functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components. _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.6.192.3&idno=14

  8. FAR Requirements:Powerplant instruments1 continued - For turbojet engine powered airplanes. a) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. b) A position indicating means to indicate to the flightcrew when the thrust reversing device - (i) Is not in the selected position, and (ii) Is in the reverse thrust position, for each engine using athrust reversing device. c) An indicator to indicate rotor system unbalance. _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.6.192.3&idno=14

  9. FAR Pertaining to Crew Station1 _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr25_main_02.tpl

  10. FAR Requirements:Cockpit controls1 • Section § 25.777 a) Each cockpit control must be located to provide convenient operation and to prevent confusion and inadvertent operation. b) The direction of movement of cockpit controls must meet the requirements of §25.779. Wherever practicable, the sense of motion involved in the operation of other controls must correspond to the sense of the effect of the operation upon the airplane or upon the part operated. Controls of a variable nature using a rotary motion must move clockwise from the off position, through an increasing range, to the full on position. c) The controls must be located and arranged, with respect to the pilots' seats, so that there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2&inch; to 6′3&inch; in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder harness (if provided) fastened. _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.4.177.46&idno=14

  11. FAR Requirements:Cockpit control knob shape 1 • Section § 25.781 Cockpit control knobs must conform to the general shapes (but not necessarily the exact sizes or specific proportions) in the following figure: _________________________ 1. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=7056dce3b7f878f4bafedcb5d1886f02&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.3.11.4.177.48&idno=14

  12. Crew Station-Seats • For most military aircraft, the design requirements include accommodation of the 5th to the 95th percentile of male pilots (i.e., a pilot height range of 65.2 – 73.1 in.) • Women are not entering the military flying profession in substantial numbers. __________________________________ Raymer, Daniel Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach Fourth Edition pg.209

  13. C130 Cockpit http://www.defence.gov.au/news/raafnews/EDITIONS/4801/images/04---C130-cockpit.jpg

  14. C130 Cockpit http://www.jetpix.com/webfiles/440AW/c130cockpit_600.jpg

  15. C130 Cockpit http://www.militaryfactory.com/cockpits/imgs/c130.jpg

  16. Aircraft Instruments Manufacturer1 1. Astro Manufacturing & Design Manufacturer of aircraft & marine instrument panels 2. Moog Components Group Manufacturer of aircraft navigation and engine instrumentation, LCD engine instrumentation and custom military display systems 3. Stacoswitch, Inc. Offers aircraft instruments including EFIS lighted aircraft switches and indicators 4. Rochester Gauges, Inc. Manufacturer of aircraft gauges& aircraft clusters _________________________________ 1http://www.thomasnet.com/nsearch.html?cov=NA&which=prod&what=Instruments%3A+Aircraft&navsec=search&heading=40410706

  17. Aircraft Seats Manufacturer1 1. Stabilus Inc. Manufacturer of seats and seat components for aircraft and automotive applications 2. Wisconsin Foam Products Manufacturer & distributor of seats & seating components for seating applications 3. Ceradyne, Inc. Manufacturer of products include ceramic armor seats, components and panel systems for use with military helicopters and aircraft ______________________________________________________ 1http://www.thomasnet.com/products/aircraft-seats-73650608-1.html

  18. Prices of the Aircraft Instruments Websites that sell the aircraft instruments (include Airspeed indicators, altimeters, turn and bank indicators, compass, vertical speed indicators and gyros, aircraft fuel pressure and level sensors, tachometers, fuel quantity indicators, and etc.) • http://www.aircraftspruce.com/menus/in/carburetorgauges.html • http://www.avionix.com/inst-digital.html • http://www.bpbsurplus.com/lc/cart.php?target=category&category_id=315 • http://www.buy-ei.com/FADEC%20Instruments.htm • http://www.chiefaircraft.com/airsec/Aircraft/FlightInstruments/Airspeeds.html • http://www.preferredairparts.com/instruments.htm Prices range: from $50 to $850

  19. FutureCockpit Controls • Future military aircraft will require the accommodation of approximately the 20th percentile female (roughly 5 ft tall) and larger. This may affect the detailed layout of cockpit controls and displays. __________________________________ Raymer, Daniel Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach Fourth Edition pg.209

  20. Future Display System • Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) Developed by Honeywell Space Systems, Phoenix, Ariz., MEDS is a space-qualified adaptation of the display technology used on the Boeing 777. 1.Crews with easy access to vital information 2. The two and three-dimensional color graphic and video capabilities 3. Information will be interchangeable between screens, allowing crews to select the display format that best suits the needs of their particular mission. ______________________________________________________ http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/hsfe_shuttle/news/1998/news_release_980920a.html

  21. THE END • Any Questions?