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Hybrid Cars. Drew Tepper. What is a hybrid?. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor. If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all. Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles. Global-Warming: Still An Issue.

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hybrid cars

Hybrid Cars

Drew Tepper

what is a hybrid
What is a hybrid?
  • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor.
  • If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all.
  • Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles.
global warming still an issue
Global-Warming: Still An Issue.
  • Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles.
  • Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half.
  • Later models may cut these emissions down by even more.
why hybrids
Why hybrids?
  • Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway.
  • Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice).
  • Emissions are greatly decreased.
  • Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.
  • Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well.
  • New materials can be implemented.
epa at work
EPA at work
  • Federal guidelines for emissions:
    • Tier 1 took effect in 1997
    • Tier 2 will phased-in beginning 2004.
  • National LEV (NLEV): builds on the California Emissions Standards until Tier 2 is implemented.
  • LEV II: California Emissions Standards.
ulev sulev
ULEV/SULEV
  • Tier 1, TLEV, LEV, ULEV, SULEV, ZEV.
  • CARB: California Air Resources Board.
  • CO2 reductions not called for. Only HC, CO, NOx.
  • Cars can be certified Low Emissions Vehicles but at the same time have high fuel consumption.
tax incentives
Tax Incentives
  • ‘The IRS has determined that purchasers of a new Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid or Toyota Prius are eligible for a "Clean-Fuel" vehicle tax deduction of $2,000. The current incentive is scheduled to phase out in 2004-06. ‘

www.fueleconomy.gov/

some epa facts
Some EPA facts
  • Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO2 into the atmosphere.
  • A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2,800 pounds of CO2 a year.

www.epa.gov/greenvehicles

tons of greenhouse gas
Tons of greenhouse gas
  • NLEV program does not take CO2 into account but let’s see some numbers:
    • Honda Insight: 3.4 t/yr.
    • Honda Civic Hybrid: 3.9 t/yr.
    • Toyota Prius: 4.0t/yr.
    • Ford Explorer: 11.0 t/yr.
    • Honda Civic: 5.7 t/yr. (calculated)
honda insight 2003
Honda Insight 2003
  • Cost:

$19,080/$21,280 (MT/CVT)

MT: manual transmission

CVT: continuously variable transmission

honda insight 200312
Honda Insight 2003

IMA: integrated motor assist system

honda civic hybrid 2003
Honda Civic Hybrid 2003

Cost: $19,550/$20,550 (MT/CVT)

toyota prius 2003
Toyota Prius 2003

Cost: $20,480 CVT

a note about ford
A note about Ford
  • I believe Ford is behind in the Hybrid world.
  • The Hybrid Escape is due at the end of 2003 with 40/29 mpg as compared to 19/25 mpg.
  • The Explorer: 239 HP, 4422 lbs., gets 17/21 mpg, and has a 22.5 gallon tank.
tepper fleet consumption
Tepper Fleet Consumption
  • 33.3 t/yr. CO2
  • Could be reduced to less than half if all cars were hybrids.

www.fueleconomy.gov

cars to come
Cars to come
  • GM: Chevy Pickup 2004, Chevy Suburban 2004.
  • Daimler-Chrysler: Dodge Ram Pickup 2005, Mercedes S-Class 2006.
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