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Hyaline Cartilage articular cartilage larynx rib and costal cartilage nasal septum Elastic Cartilage epiglottis Fibrocar PowerPoint Presentation
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Hyaline Cartilage articular cartilage larynx rib and costal cartilage nasal septum Elastic Cartilage epiglottis Fibrocar - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cortical Bone. Trabecular Bone. Hyaline Cartilage articular cartilage larynx rib and costal cartilage nasal septum Elastic Cartilage epiglottis Fibrocartilage Intervertebral disk meniscus. Meniscus. Articular Cartilage.

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slide1

Cortical Bone

Trabecular Bone

  • Hyaline Cartilage
    • articular cartilage
    • larynx
    • rib and costal cartilage
    • nasal septum
  • Elastic Cartilage
    • epiglottis
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Intervertebral disk
    • meniscus

Meniscus

Articular

Cartilage

Tissues are classified by their biochemical composition, molecular microstructure, biomechanical properties and function.

slide3

AC/Meniscus Functions:

  • Support large loads
    • gymnastics
    • Walking
  • Lubrication

Interested in these structures because

when they “breakdown” we get

osteoarthritis

articular cartilage
Articular Cartilage
  • Important to understand
    • Mechanical properties of normal cartilage
    • Manner by which biochemical and structural factors contribute to the material properties of cartilage
    • Manner by which changes in tissue composition affect the mechanical properties of cartilage
diarthrodial joint
Diarthrodial joint
  • Fibrous capsule
  • Inside lined with synovium which secretes synovial fluid
microstructure solid and fluid phase
Microstructure (Solid and Fluid Phase)
  • Interstitial water
    • Articular cartilage 68-85%, meniscus 60-70%
interstitial water
Interstitial Water
  • Constant with age
  • Increases with OA or degeneration
  • Amount of water is dependent on
interstitial water8
Interstitial water
  • Ions-
  • As tissue is compressed-Frictional drag force on walls of the pores of the solid matrix due to interstitial fluid flow through the pores of collagen-PG matrix
microstructure solid and fluid phase9
Microstructure (Solid and Fluid Phase)
  • Collagen
  • Proteoglycans
  • Cells

No blood or nerves in cartilage

collagen made up of molecules tropocollagen 1 4 nm that polymerize to form fibrils
Collagen: made up of molecules (tropocollagen--1.4 nm) that polymerize to form fibrils
  • Type II (AC), forms bundles, with diam.=2 to 10 microns
  • Type I (meniscus), forms fibrils, with diam. = 20-200 nm
proteoglycans
Proteoglycans
  • Negative charge attracts +ions (K and Na)
  • Swelling pressure
  • PG want to be 5-10 times larger, but not enough room in cartilage
material properties
Material Properties
  • Steel is linear elastic (E,)
  • Soft tissues ARE NOT!!
    • Water movement (forces depend on rate-damping)

STEEL

material properties18
Material Properties
  • Viscoelastic behavior are dominated by frictional drag of interstitial fluid flow through the porous collagen-proteoglycan solid matrix, thus causing viscous dissipation
material properties anisotropy inhomogeneous
Material Properties-Anisotropy/Inhomogeneous
  • Transversely Isotropic
  • Inhomogeneous
constitutive equation
Constitutive Equation:
  • Linear Elastic Materials (Steel)
    • Hookes’ Law:  = E
  • Viscoelastic materials (AC/meniscus)
    • Biphasic Theory (2 phase)
    • Triphasic Theory (3 phase)
tension

Deform.

Force

time

time

Tensile Stress Relaxation Test

Tension
  • Equilibrium Tensile Modulus (1-30 MPa)
    • Type of tissue
    • Age of animal
    • Type of joint
    • Sample location
    • Depth of sample (surface = 10MPa, Middle =4.5MPa)
    • Relative orientation
    • Biochemical comp/ molecular structure
    • State of degeneration (Normal =10MPa, OA=1.4MPa)
compression
Compression
  • Compressive Aggregate Modulus (HA)(0.4-1.5 MPa)

Force

Deform

time

time

Confined Compression Creep Test

compression24
Compression
  • HA varies inversely with water content *OA patients have increased water
  • HA varies directly with PG content
  • Not dependent on collagen content
methods of failure cartilage
Methods of Failure-Cartilage

Fracture –

Fracture with Bone

Wear

Degeneration

Blunt Trauma (intense compression and shear forces)

Bone

Bone