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"Opportunities for the development of fortification tourism: experience of European walled towns” A Presentation for the Kaliningrad Tourism Conference 15th April 2005

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"Opportunities for the development of fortification tourism: experience of European walled towns” A Presentation for the Kaliningrad Tourism Conference 15th April 2005

David M. Bruce, MA, MPhil, MRTPI, MCILT, MTS Principal Lecturer in Tourism, Bristol Business School, University of West of England

a word or two about myself david bruce@uwe ac uk
A word or two about myself [email protected]
  • I regret I cannot be here.
  • My background has been in
    • History
    • Economics
    • Town Planning
    • Transport
    • and finally Tourism
to begin with walled and fortified towns
To begin with walled and fortified towns
  • Any town still defined by its walls or defensive structures is an anomaly.
  • Either the town's growth has been arrested at some point (crisis)
  • and/or economic life has subsequently passed it by.
  • This process is described in the ‘Ashworth model’
ashworth model adapted
Ashworth model adapted

crisis

Sustainable Development?

Development

Including

Walls

Valuation

defences medieval or modern
defences medieval or 'modern'
  • dramatic (or dramatically restored or re-created)
  • town walls or defensive structures which are intrinsic to the community identity.
  • Soave - Naarden
  • Kaliningrad
walled towns friendship circle
Founded in Wales in 1989 at Tenby to:

To create an international forum.

To encourage friendships visits and mutual understanding between the inhabitants

To encourage an increase in tourism whilst considering the challenges.

To develop joint marketing strategies to increase world-wide awareness of walled towns.

Walled Towns Friendship Circle

http://www.tourism-research.org/wtfcresearchdb.html

heritage a contentious subject
‘Heritage’ a contentious subject
  • Glendinning in “Beyond the cult of the Monument” (2001)
    • condemns ‘the totalitarian (mis-)conception of age-value’
    • identifies the conscious and inadvertent mutual monument destruction of 20th Century warfare
    • sees ‘National Heritage’ as ‘now a mask for global commodification’
  • Ashworth and Lowenthal developed further themes
dissonant heritage
‘Dissonant’ Heritage
  • Conquest, changes in borders, changes in political control, even changes in population make ‘heritage’ contentious - ESPECIALLY ‘National Heritage’.
  • Tunbridge and Ashworth (1996)
    • about 10 pages on the case of Kaliningrad
  • Even walled towns may be divisive,
    • with insiders and outsiders.
ownership and responsibility
Ownership and Responsibility
  • 'Who owns the Past?' asked Lowenthal (1996)
  • Tourism incentives to inclusiveness
  • But dangers of heritage tourism leading to "irritation/resentment and displacement of [present] host communities"
the economic incentive of tourism for walled towns
The Economic Incentive of tourism for walled towns
  • Across Europe the 147 member towns
    • have a population of 3.5 million
    • attract some 50 million visitors a year.
    • usually staying only for a day or two
    • worth about one billion Euros a year
    • or 285 Euros per head of local population.
costs and benefits
Costs and Benefits
  • In larger towns they cost little in the way of extra resources because the infrastucture is available to (and / or needed by) the local inhabitants.
  • about 66,000 full time jobs
    • though many may be part-time or seasonal.
  • The built heritage helps
    • to lengthen the stay
    • to increase the spend and employment.
european commission interreg iiic
a 3 year project called ‘ARCHWAY’

led by the Walled City of Chester with

7 other walled towns members

plus one other town

advised by the University of West of England.

Five dimensions of historic town management

Conservation and Interpretation

Transport and Traffic

Spatial Planning

Tourism and Marketing

Cultural Heritage Management

accessibility to the heritage

European Commission INTERREG iiiC
archway partners
Archway Partners
  • Chester
  • s’Hertogenbosch
  • UWE, Bristol
  • (unwalled) Loerrach
  • Pecs
  • Piran
  • ‘Arabarri’ (a consortium of small towns in Spain)
  • Verona
  • Lucca
  • Valletta
where we were from
WHERE WE WERE FROM

Ivy

Rachael

qu

Samantha

Ma

Lili

King

Lanlan

Beam

June

David

Mojgan

Kate

Wenting

unesco nara declaration and walled towns
UNESCO NARA DECLARATION AND WALLED TOWNS

About ‘authenticity’

"The cultural heritage of each is the cultural heritage of all” UNESCO

piran declaration
Piran Declaration

Walled Towns are unique inheritances from times long past and should be treasured, maintained and safeguarded from neglect and destruction and passed on to perpetuity as irreplaceable

'Timestones of History'

wtfc website
WTFC Website

the website of the Walled Towns Friendship Circle http://www.walledtowns.com and especially the linked research pages at http://www.tourism-research.org/wtfcresearchdb.html

and for Unesco http://www.unesco.org

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