What is Music? • The Organization of Sound in Time
What is Music? • The Organization of Sound in Time • Sound • Time • Organization
Hearing vs Listening • Passive listening (hearing) - being mildly aware of sound • Active listening - concentrating on sounds.
Properties of Objects • Size • Shape • Color • Texture
Elements of Music Pitch Duration Dynamics Timbre
Pitch • High or low sounds (notes)
Pitch • High or low sounds (notes) • Melody - the “tune”. A series of pitches heard one at a time. • Motive - a short, instantly recognizable idea. Like a musical "word". Usually, a melody consists of several motives.
Pitch • Harmony: Two or more sounds heard at the same time. Chords. • Consonant - stable sound • Dissonant - unstable sound
Pitch • Interval - The distance between two pitches. • Conjunct - step (small interval) • Disjunct - leap (large interval)
Pitch • Vibrato - a rapid, slight variation of pitch. • Produces a stronger, richer tone. • Done by voices and instruments (many, but not all).
Pitch • Phrase - Part of a melody - when singing, as much as you sing in one breath
Pitch • Shape - the contour of a melody - mapping out the highs and lows.
Pitch • Cadence - Resting place. Complete (final / permanent) or incomplete (temporary or a mid-way pause). • A phrase will often end with a cadence.
Duration • The element of time.
Duration • Beat - the steady pulse that flows through a piece of music. • Fast or slow • May be easy to hear (or feel), or it may not be. • Nonmetric - If the beat is not evident.
Duration • Meter - how the beats are grouped. • Most often in either in 2, 3 or 4 (most common) • Usually first beat is accented. • Occasionally, meter is in another grouping.
Duration • Tempo - the speed of the beats. • Fast or slow. • Remember, the beat usually remains steady
Duration • Rhythm - a pattern of beats and accents, shorts and longs. • Often the rhythm is a pattern that repeats.
Duration • Syncopation - when the emphasis falls on a beat that is normally not accented. • An exception in “classical” music, but a feature of “popular” music.
Dynamics • Volume. Loud or soft • The relative loudness or softness. • Relative - loud to a flute is not the same as loud to a trumpet!
Dynamics • p = piano - soft • f = forte - strong (or loud) • Mezzo- = medium or half • -issimo = very
Dynamics • pp = pianissimo • p = piano • mp = mezzo-piano • mf = mezzo-forte • f = forte • ff = fortissimo
Dynamics • pp - p - mp - - mf - f - ff • -3 -2 -1 (0) 1 2 3
Dynamics • Crescendo - gradual increase in volume • Decrescendo - gradual decrease in volume • Subito - sudden change in volume
Timbre • A description of the actual sounds you are hearing.
Timbre • Timbre can be a list of the instruments or voices that you hear. • Timbre can also refer to the variations in tone color of a specific instrument (a bright guitar or dark voice).