Dr. Dan Schrag Video By: K. Prakken
Quiz One Questions: • Who was the first scientist to conduct an experiment to measure modern day CO2levels in the Earth’s atmosphere ? • Where were these measurements taken and why? • Why is Venus important? • How much sunlight is reflected off of Earth’s surface compared to Venus’? • What would happen if Venus had the same atmosphere as Earth?
Quiz One Answers: • David Keeling • Mauna Loa, Hawaii – middle of the Pacific where air is more pure • Less sunlight reaches Venus’ surface than reaches Earth (Venus’ surface is highly reflective; it has no oceans) , but with 99% CO2 in its atmosphere compared to Earth’s .038%, Venus’s greenhouse effect is so powerful, it’s a run-away effect. • 30% off of Earth’s surface; most off of Venus’ • Venus would be a lot colder because it would have too tiny a greenhouse effect to compensate for its highly reflective surface.
Quiz Two Questions: • What happens to a main sequence star over time? • What has happened to CO2 levels in the atmosphere as the sun has brightened over time? • In the natural carbon cycle, what are the two sources of CO2 on Earth? • What does the planet’s temperature do to the rate of CO2 formation? • What affect does burning fossil fuel have on the carbon cycle?
Quiz Two Answers: • A main sequence star, like our Sun, grows brighter over time • CO2 levels have decreased • Volcanoes and Calcium Carbonate • Heat usually increases chemical reactions, e.g. the rate at which CO2 forms • Adds CO2 to atmosphere faster than the Earth’s natural systems – the carbon cycle – can remove. The result: fast rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Quiz Three Questions: • What is a Foraminifera? • What are the characteristics of Isotopes of Oxygen? • Which kind of oxygen do chemicals that bond with oxygen prefer—O18 or O16? • What is the current deep ocean temperature, and how does that compare to the last really hot period (the Eocene?)
Quiz Three Answers: • A foraminifera is a tiny climate-sensitive organism that produces shells of calcium carbonate. Scientists examine the chemistry of their shells to reconstruct ancient climate and environments. • 8 protons, 8 neutrons=oxygen-16; some oxygen has extra neutrons • Prefers O-18 because it has more mass and bonds are stronger • Deep ocean temperature is 2 degrees Celsius today; was 12 degrees Celsius during really warm period 35 million years ago (Eocene)
Quiz Four Questions • What are the uses of Oxygen Isotopes? • What was the last time in history when CO2 levels were probably above 500ppm? • What was Greenland like at the time of the Eocene? • What was the climate of Wyoming during the Eocene? • In Antarctica?
Quiz Four Answers: • The ratio of different Oxygen Isotopes are used to reconstruct ancient temperatures. They also tell us about the amount of ice there was on Earth since lighter isotopes evaporate from the sea and thus are found in ice sheets, while heavier isotopes remain in the shells of deep ocean organisms. • The Eocene. • Crocodiles. • Palm Trees. • Pine Forests.
Quiz Five Questions: • The circulation of oceans (the deep ocean conveyer belt) is driven by what factors? • What would happen to Europe’s climate if the conveyer belt shut down? • What was misleading about the movie The Day After Tomorrow? • What surface on Earth heats up and cools down faster, land or ocean?
Quiz Five Answers: • Temperature (hot or cold masses of water) and density(how salty or fresh is the water). Cold and salty water is the densest, and thus sinks the deepest – thus powering the conveyor belt • Fresher water (from melting ice) will not be as dense • No global ice age would be triggered. Europe would get a bit colder, but it’s weather is also determined by southerly (warm) winds. Eastern North America would not get colder because its weather comes from the continent, not the ocean. • The temperature of land changes quickly since it can not retain heat or cold; the temperature of oceans and water changes slowly.
Global Warming: Global Warming is a serious issue and is worsening everyday we put off action. We all must pull together and help to make sure that global warming is stopped before we can’t do anything. Join the fight against global warming and help make the world a better place for everyone.