France Before Napoleon • The French Revolutionary Period • In 1789 France still controlled by Monarchy • France was not a poor country but numerous wars had put the government in debt. • All the taxes were on the working poor • The bourgeoisie and the san culottes • Glass Ceiling
Estates General • Because of their discontent the bourgeoisie and san culottes begin to revolt. • King Louis calls the Estates General (Les Etats-Generaux de 1789) • The Estates General consisted of three parties • 1st estate- Nobles • 2nd Estate- Clergy • 3rd Estate- Bourgeoisie • The three estates took the Tennis Court Oath
Flight of the King • As a result, In 1791 a new constitution is put into effect. • This ends absolutism in France, but was not end of monarchy. • However, San culottes still unhappy • The flight of the king, in June 1791 the royal family fled Paris in disguise. This ends the monarchy in France. • This ends the reign of the Bourbons in France.
Another Constitution • France declares war on Austria, Prussia soon after becomes involved as well. • France soon after declares itself a democratic republic. King and Marie Antoinette are tried and executed. • While still in war with Prussia and Austria the French revolution rises again. • New constitution of 1793 is created.
Reign of Terror • France turns to Maximillion Robespierre • The Reign of Terror in France. Started with the Executions of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. • Ended in the Thermidorian Reaction, where several leaders including Robespierre were executed. • France immediately goes back to the Constitution of 1791, but called it the Constitution of 1795. this meant that the san culottes were once again unhappy. • With France in Turmoil, England takes the offensive and begins to invade France. • This was ended with the Treaty of Amiens.
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte • His first real military opportunity came when he was just 24, as a captain of artillery at the siege of Toulon. • Was able to seize forts, and eventually was able to force British naval forces to retreat. • Was arrested and jailed for a short time because he was the friend of the brother of Robespierre. • He put down a mob in 1795 with the famous quote “whiff of grapeshot” after being ordered to by a member of the Directory, Paul Barras.
About Napoleon • Was born in Ajaccio on Corsica, August 15,1769 • Entered military school (ÉcoleMilitaire) in 1784 at the age of 14. • When he was an adult he stood at 5’ 6”. • Also known as The Little Corporal (Le Petit Caporal) or The Corsican. • Despised the disorder of the French Revolution.
The Art of War • Napoleon created his own Art of War. • Never had a set battle plan. • Never used the same tactic twice. • Rapid and audacious attacks. • Surprise and Speed. • Napoleon wanted to confuse his enemies and make them feel unprepared. • Wanted his enemies demoralized but not killed.
The Rise • As a reward for his protection of the Convention, the directory rewarded him with command of the army of Italy. • His victories induced the Austrians to conclude the Peace of Campoformio. • With the Austria war over France turned to England and Napoleon was at the head of this.
Egypt • France knew that England's channel defense was unbeatable. So instead Napoleon suggested going through Britain's colonies by attacking Egypt. • This was successful until, after seizing Cairo. Napoleon was stopped because Frances fleet was beaten by Lord Admiral Horatio Nelson. • This defeat left Napoleon stranded in Egypt. • Napoleon however continued to tell France that everything was going well.
Move to the Government • After 19 months in Egypt Napoleon left his army and snuck back to Paris. • The reason for this was because the Directory was weakening and Napoleon wanted to be there when France had no leader. • He participated in the over through of the Directory (Coup d'etat). • He was soon after named the 1st Council of 3 councils. However he basically dominated the government and in 1799 had himself elected 1st council for life.
As 1st Council • Napoleon first made a compromise with the Pope. However he did not give back the churches land because this land now belonged to the bourgeoisie. This gained their trust. • Made it so that the clergy in France had to be elected by the French people. • In 1804 the Code Napoleon became Frances first uniform code of law and most of those laws still exist today.
Continued • Napoleon wanted Frances economy strong to increase popularity and also to make France stronger. • Put high tax on foreign goods so that Frances could compete. • To prevent inflation he created the Bank of France. • Made jobs available to talent and no money.
Military • Realizing that if he were to strengthen his own position and rest his war weary country he realized he would have to make a safe period of peace for France. • France embarked on a second Italian campaign against Austria. • Defeated Austria and Prussia and made them allies.
Emperor • By 1810 Napoleon controlled almost every nation in Europe. Napoleon called this the Great Empire. • He named himself king in Italy • However, Frances Greatest foe, England, refused to even make peace with France. • In 1805 Napoleon put together a navy consisting of a French and Spanish fleet. • In the battle of Trafalgar the British crushed the French- Spanish fleet.
Continental System • Napoleon created the Continental system. • Forbid all nations under his control from doing business with England. • This only hurt the British slightly because of their colonies all over the world. • This was, however, like a punishment to the already conquered countries who needed England to help their Economies. This created massive unemployment, even in France, and some of the countries went into a depression. • The bourgeoisie begin to turn on Napoleon.
The Spanish Ulcer • Napoleon gave Spain the duty of keeping Portugal from trading with England. Spain did not put a big effort forward to keep this from happening. • Napoleon decided to invade ally Spain and then put his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain. • In 1807 the War of the Knife breaks out. Napoleon called this war the Spanish Ulcer.
The Spanish Ulcer • With the Spanish in a war with France England grasps the opportunity to get into Europe and begin to fight with the Spanish. • Because of Spain's slight success other countries become inspired and form a resistance against France. • In 1812 Russia then begins to trade with England and Napoleon, while still fighting Spain travel east to fight Russia.
Le Grande Armee de la Russe • Napoleon took 614,000 men and 200,000 animals to Russia. • Napoleon marches his army to Moscow after little resistance. The highlight being the Battle of Borodino. • He finds Moscow empty. The army arrive on September 7 and did not leave until October 19. However, the army is slow and on the return to France the Russian winter sets in and much of the army is lost. • Napoleon arrived back in Paris before his army on December 18.
The Decline • Napoleon builds another army in Paris. • He was defeated at the battle of Nations at Leipzig in October of 1813. • He continued to fight until March of 1814 where Napoleon abdicated the throne and put his son Napoleon II in place. • Soon after Louis XVIII was put on the throne. This was the return of the Bourbon family to the throne.
Exile 1 • Napoleon is exiled away from France to the island of Elba. • However, Napoleon began planning and plotting to get France back on top and restore his name. • Ten months later with the French people once again upset with the monarchy, Napoleon began to invade.
The Return of Napoleon • In February of 1816 Napoleon began sailing from Elba to France. • Napoleon with only 1000 men began marching. The French army, discontent with the new king, began to follow Napoleon. • He arrived in Paris unopposed and took the throne on March 21. • Louis XVIII fled the throne.
The Hundred Days • With Napoleon being back the countries immediately began the war again. • Napoleon began advancing through Europe winning the battle of Ligny. • However, at the battle of Waterloo Napoleon’s army is soundly defeated on June 18, 1815. • He returned to Paris defeated and was once again abdicated on June 22.
Exiled for Good • Napoleon is exiled to the island of St. Helena, this after trying to escape to the United States. • There he spent the rest of his life writing his memoirs • He died of skin cancer on May 15, 1821.
The Congress of Vienna • After the battle of Waterloo the European powers meet in Vienna, Austria, in an effort to reconstruct Europe and also to make peace. This meeting was known as the congress of Vienna. • During these meetings the European powers quickly decided that France would not be punished for Napoleons actions. • Through the meetings an alliance between the five major powers in Europe was created known as the Concert of Europe • Because of these meeting there would not be a major war in Europe for almost 100 years
Works Cited • http://www.napoleonbonaparte.nl/html/body_nap_and_revolution.html • http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/bonapartenapoleon/a/bionapoleon.htm • http://www.answers.com/topic/napoleon-bonaparte • http://www.essortment.com/all/napoleonbonapar_rxda.htm