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Unit 4

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  1. Unit 4 Instructor: Jose Davila

  2. Risk Factors and Early Intervention • Many factors—known or unknown—can place a child at risk for developmental disability. • The goal of this chapter is to prevent disabilities in the children of our country.

  3. Terms and Definitions • Risk factors are biological or environmental conditions associated with cognitive, social, affective, and physical problems. • The presence of risk factors increases the probability of adverse outcomes but does not guarantee them.

  4. Biological Risk • Biological risks exists when prenatal, perinatal,or postnatal events increase the likelihood that the child will experience developmental problems. • Prenatal—from conception to birth • Perinatal—from the twelfth week of pregnancy through the first birthday. • Postnatal—twenty-eighth day of life through the first birthday

  5. Prenatal Factors • Teratogens are substances that can cause birth defects (alcohol, drugs, illnesses). • Illnesses of the mother during pregnancy can cause damage to the developing fetus (e.g. rubella, CMV, STDs, HIV/Aids) • When STDs are identified and treated during the first trimester of pregnancy, harm to the fetus can be avoided. • Aids and HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding.

  6. Thalimodine Tragedy • The thalimodine tragedy of the 1950s demonstrated that great care must be taken with all drugs during pregnancy. • Thalmodine was prescribed to pregnant women for nausea; over time it was learned that taking the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy caused shortened or missing arms and legs in fetus.

  7. Polysubstance Abusers • Apolysubstance abusers are those who use a combination of drugs as well as alcohol. • Babies of mothers who have used cocaine, heroin or methadone marijuana, PCP, or amphetamines appear to be at significant risk, and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of an unstable environment.

  8. Long-Term Effects • Long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on the child are difficult to predict. • Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy can result in fetal alcohol syndrome or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. • Smoking can result in pregnancy complications as well as low birth weight and physical abnormalities in the infant. • Younger mothers and older mothers are at risk for different pregnancy complications. (e.g. mothers over age 35 are more likely to have a child with down syndrome.

  9. Perinatal Period • The perinatal period ranges from the twelfth week of pregnancy to the twenty-eighth day of life. • Premature babies are born before the thirty seven weeks’ gestation; low baby weigh less than five and a half pounds. • Advances in neonatology and high-risk infant care have ensured the survival of many low birthweight babies.

  10. Postnatal Period • Diseases like meningitis and conditions like chronic otitis media can result in disabilities that affect school performance. • Among the diseases that can place a young child’s learning at risk are asthma or chronic lung disease, HIV, and ongoing ear infections. • Nutritional deprivations is usually associated with extreme poverty, and it is difficult to separate the effects of poor nutrition from the other deprivations of poverty.

  11. Environmental Risk • Environmental risk includes all the risk factors related to the environment in which the child develops. • Early exposure to lead is associated with a greater likelihood of school problems. • Neurotoxins damage the developing nervous system. • Accidents are the most common postnatal risk factor. • Poverty—which can include both economic and social factors—is a major cause of environmental risk. • Child abuse may be responsible for some cases of mental retardation, physical disability, and emotional disturbance in the U.S. today. • Developmental problems most often stem from a combination of biological and environmental risk factors.

  12. Prevention • Inoculation, or vaccination against infectious diseases, is a prevention strategy that should be available to every child. • Genetic counseling can also be a step in preventing disability. • Early and consistent prenatal care is the most effective way to prevent many disabilities. • Amniocentesis and chronic villous sampling can provide information on the health of the fetus. • Early-intervention is the set of services provided to children from birth to age 3 and their families that is designed for their unique characteristics and needs.

  13. Early Intervention • Research documents the effectiveness of early interventions services. • Early-Intervention can be provided in the family home, at an early intervention center or in the community. • Family involvement and family support are the foundation of effective early intervention. • The IFSP is written not just for the child, but for the family.

  14. Identification and Assessment for Infants at Risk • Three groups of infants and toddlers are eligible for early intervention services under law. • 1. Those with an identified condition related to developmental disability, such as hearing or vision loss or Down Syndrome. • 2. Those who are experiencing developmental delay in motor, cognitive, communication, psychosocial, or self-help skills. • 3. Those who are at risk for significant developmental delay because of biological and/or environmental events in their lives.

  15. Identification and Assessment of Infants at Risk • Best practices in assessment demand that multiple types of data from multiple sources, especially the family, be used for good decision-making. • Children with responsive and consistent caregiving have the best chance of recovering from the effects of risk factors. • Resilient children can overcome the odds and become healthy, productive adults. • Personal factors and a close bond with primary caregiver may help resilient children overcome early risk factors.

  16. Any questions???? • Discussion Board Requirements!!!! • Thank you for the hard work. • Take care.