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Materials move through cells by diffusion. Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste products move out of cells. How does the size of a cell affect how efficiently materials get to all parts of a cell? Work with a partner to complete this activity

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slide1

Materials move through cells by diffusion. Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste products move out of cells. How does the size of a cell affect how efficiently materials get to all parts of a cell?

Work with a partner to complete this activity

1. On a sheet of paper, make a drawing of a cell that has the following dimensions: 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm. Your partner should draw another cell about one half the size of your cell on a separate sheet of paper.

2. Compare your drawings. How much longer do you think it would taketo get from the cell membrane to the center of the big cell than from the cell membrane to the center of the smaller cell?

3.What is the advantage of cells being small?

It would take twice the amount of time.

If cells are small, materials can be distributed to all parts of the cell quickly.

image by riedell

Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG

Image by Riedell

CELL GROWTH

& DIVISION

10-1 & 10-2

2 reasons why cells divide
2 Reasons why cells divide

DNA OVERLOAD

1. _____________________As cell grows bigger demand on DNA“genetic library” becomes too great

Ex: Small town library has 1000 books.

As town grows and more people borrow books, there may be a waiting list to read the most popular titles

http://www.adc.state.az.us/images/Off-Library.JPG

2 reasons why cells divide4
2 Reasons why cells divide

Material exchange can’t keep up

2. _____________________As cell grows bigger demand for transport across membrane is too great

http://www.animationlibrary.com

slide5

Ability to transport of oxygen, food, waste across cell membrane depends on _______________

Need for these depends on ___________

SURFACE AREA

CELL VOLUME

As cell grows these DON’T increase at the same rate

See relationshipbetween volume and SA

ratio of surface area to volume in cells
Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells

Section 10-1

Cell Size

Surface Area (length x width x 6)

Volume

(length x width x height)

Ratio of Surface Area to Volume

slide7
BIGGER CELLS NEED MORE FOOD

and OXYGEN, but CAN’T TRANSPORT

IT FAST ENOUGH or IN BIG

ENOUGH QUANTITIES!

http://www.animationlibrary.com

image by riedell8

Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG

Image by Riedell

Multicellular organisms grow

mainly by increasing cell number

slide9

DNA CAN BE:

SPREAD OUT INNON-DIVIDING CELLS

SCRUNCHED UP

IN DIVIDINGCELLS

CHROMOSOMES

CHROMATIN

dna in prokaryotes
DNA in PROKARYOTES
  • BACTERIAL DNA is CIRCULAR
  • HAVE ONE CHROMOSOME
  • NO NUCLEUS; ATTACHED TO CELL MEMBRANE

http://www.origin-life.gr.jp/3202/3202121/fig6.jpg

dna in eukaryotes plants animals
DNA in EUKARYOTES(Plants & Animals)
  • DNA is ROD-SHAPED CHROMOSOMES
  • MANY PAIRS
  • FOUND IN NUCLEUS

http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/chrom2.jpg

chromosome structure
Chromosome structure

CHROMATIDS

  • ___________________ 2 identical arms
  • __________________

constricted area holds chromatids together

CENTROMERE

HOMOLOGOUS

  • __________________ PAIR
  • 2 of each chromosome(one from mom; one from dad)
homologous chromosomes
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
  • SAME SIZE
  • SAME SHAPE
  • CARRY GENES for the SAME TRAITS
  • BUT ______________!

(Don’t have to have the SAME CHOICES)

NOT IDENTICAL

http://arnica.csustan.edu/biol3020/cell_division/cell_division.htm

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm

cell division in prokaryotes
CELL DIVISION in PROKARYOTES

Bacteria reproduce using

__________________________________

BINARY FISSION

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/fission.jpg

cell cycle
CELL CYCLE

INTERPHASE – non-dividing phase

G1- Grow bigger Cell is “doing its job” DNA is spread out as chromatin

S - Synthesis (copy DNA) & chromosomal proteins

G2- Grow bigger, make organelles & molecules needed for cell division

cell division
CELL DIVISION

MITOSIS – Nuclear division

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Cytokinesis – Cytoplasm divides

G0 – cell stops dividing (Ex: nerve cell)

figure 10 4 the cell cycle
Figure 10–4 The Cell Cycle

Section 10-2

G1 phase

M phase

S phase

G2 phase

slide20

In between divisionsCells are in this phase most of the time

Can see nucleus

DNA spread out as chromatin

Can’t see chromosomes

DNA gets copied (S)

Cell gets ready to divide

INTERPHASE (G1 - S - G2)

slide21

Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

PROPHASE

1st dividing phase

http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/102/lectures/08mit&veg102.html

DNA scrunches into chromosomes

Centrioles appear in centrosome region & move to poles

Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disappear

Spindle fibers form & attach to chromosomes

region organizes spindle

CENTROSOME

________ region organizes spindle

Spindle MICROTUBULES are part of cytoskeleton

http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm

slide23

Chromosomes line up in

___________

middle

METAPHASE

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

slide24

Centromeres splitCentrioles pull chromatids_______

apart

ANAPHASE

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

slide25

two

See ______ nuclei

Nuclear membrane & nucleolus return

TELOPHASE (reverse prophase steps)

Chromosomes spread out as chromatin

Centrioles disappear

Spindle fibers disappear

Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

http://www2.bc.cc.ca.us/cnewton/Biology%2011/Mitosis.html

slide26

CYTOKINESIS

Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells

ANIMAL CELLS pinch cytoplasm in two

with a ______________________

CLEAVAGE FURROW

slide27

CYTOKINESIS

Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells

PLANT CELLS can’t pinch because

they have a sturdy ____________

Plant cells separate cytoplasm by growing a _______________ down the middle.

CELL WALL

CELL PLATE

http://www.eastcentral.edu/acad/depts/BI/plant_mitosis_nolabels.html

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis29
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis30
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis31
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis32
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

figure 10 5 mitosis and cytokinesis33
Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 10-2

Spindle forming

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromatin

Centriole

Nuclear envelope

Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

Interphase

Prophase

Spindle

Cytokinesis

Centriole

Metaphase

Individual chromosomes

Telophase

Anaphase

Nuclear envelope reforming

slide34

Videos

Animal Cell Mitosis

Animal Cell Cytokinesis

concept map
Concept Map

Section 10-2

Cell Cycle

includes

is divided into

is divided into

concept map36

M phase

(Mitosis)

Interphase

G1 phase

S phase

G2 phase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Concept Map

Section 10-2

Cell Cycle

includes

is divided into

is divided into

south dakota core science standards
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.

  • Transport (ANALYSIS)

cell membranes, homeostasis

  • Cell life cycles (ANALYSIS)

Examples: somatic cells (mitosis)