Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity
The Burden (or Privilege) of Race PAGE 276: Excerpt from“DAYS OF GRACE” by A. Ashe.
Race as a social construction • Biologically speaking, because of the blending of people from different parts of the world, there is no such thing as a “pure” race. • Race = a social category distinguished by socially-selected biological traits. • What are examples of “socially selected” biological traits?
Race as a social & psychological construction • More recently, people have selected/ influenced which race they belong to by which one he/she identifies with the most. • In U. S. examples of racialcategories: • Native Americans • Latin or Hispanic Americans • African-Americans • Asian-Americans • Middle-Eastern Americans • Anglo-Americans
Ethnicity Ethnicity= A social category distinguished (by others or by themselves) by subcultural and/or nationality traits. 5 Main Features of Ethnicity (Ethnic Categories) • Unique cultural traits • Sense of community • A feeling of ethnocentrism • Ascribed membership from birth (in adulthood can be achieved) • Territoriality Examples???
Ethnicity/Ethnic Categories * Note an ethnic category is a minority-status category by definition; it denotes attachment to a culture that is different or unique from the dominant U. S. culture. Thus, there is no such ethnicity as “English -American,” even though England is a different country. Examples of Ethnic Categories? Note: There is a SPECIFC COUNTRY attached to American, NOT a whole continent like Africa or Europe.
Race & Ethnicity Consider: Whydo we discuss such concepts as “Race” and “Ethnicity?” OPPORTUNITIES and LIFE CHANCES. Examples?? Even as your author states, race and ethnicity affect how long people live -- in the United States.
Race & Ethnicity For the first time, Census 2000 made it possible for people to indicate that they belonged to more than one race.
What do we mean by “minority” and “majority?” • Minority-status = A social position that is relatively disadvantaged in terms of life chances,e.g., blocked opportunities to political influence, economic participation, rights. • Majority status = a social position that is relatively advantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., influence politically, economic participation, rights.
Minority and Majority Statuses • Examples of majority status in the U. S. social structure of society? • Examples of minority status in the U. S. social structure of society?
Related concepts: Prejudice = a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected social categories, e.g., race, ethnicity, age, ability. Stereotypes = Overgeneralizations about appearance, behavior, or other traits of members of social categories.
Related concepts… Discrimination = The practice of treating people unequally. See Figure 9.1 on page 285. Examples of each category? 2 categories of discrimination • Individual: one-on-one unequal treatment. • Institutional: When unequal treatment of people is embedded into social organizations and institutions (e.g., residentially by real estate industry, auto industry, dating, workplace, military).
Related concepts… • Racism = Prejudice and discrimination based on race. • Segregation = the spatial and social separation of social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, ability-level, social class, gender, religion). • Assimilation = the process by which members of minority races and ethnicities become absorbed into the dominant culture.
4 Levels of Assimilation a.) Cultural assimilation (a.k.a., acculturation) = when members of a racial or ethnic minority adopt aspects of dominant culture,e.g., language, dress, values, religion, and food. b.) Structural assimilation (a.k.a. integration) = when members of a racial or ethnic minority gain acceptance into everyday social interaction with members of the majority race or ethnicity (e.g., in the workplace, in friendship, social clubs).
4 Levels of Assimilation… c). Biological assimilation (a.k.a. amalgamation) = when members of one race or ethnicity marry members of another race or ethnicity. * Note: Biological assimilation (or amalgamation) is more complete in countries such as Mexico and Brazil than in the U. S.) d.) Psychological Assimilation = An individual person’s change in racial or ethnic self-identification. Focus > Native-Americans. Have been here the longest. At which level are Native Americans?
Theoretical Perspectives of Race and Ethnic Relations • Review Table 9.A on page 291.
Review ALL racial minority categories in Ch. 9 of Text • Asian-Americans • African-Americans • Hispanic-Americans • Native-Americans • Middle-Eastern Americans GROUP DISCUSSIONS>>> • History? Life Chances Today?? • How does ethnicity affect both factors (history and life chances) for some races?
Southern Poverty Law Center • View http:///www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp