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CEMISTRY of CELLS. Cells and Water From foukeffa.org Written by David Wilson Uintah High School GA Ag Ed Curriculum Office To accompany the Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Lesson 02471-18 July 2002. UNIT OBJECTIVES.

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cemistry of cells


Cells and Water

From foukeffa.org

Written by David Wilson

Uintah High School

GA Ag Ed Curriculum Office

To accompany the Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Lesson 02471-18

July 2002

unit objectives
  • 1. Identify the major elements and acromolecules found in living things.
  • 2. Compare the properties and structure of atoms found in living things.
  • 3. Illustrate and explain how small molecules combine to form large molecules.
  • 4. Explain the role proteins play in cell structure and function.
objectives continued
Objectives Continued
  • 5. Hypothesize the relationship between the properties of water to life’s processes.
  • 6. Design and conduct an experiment that demonstrates the importance of water.
  • 7. Explain how water affects agriculture.
  • 8. Compare and contrast how plants and animals acquire and conserve water in a cell.
important terms
Important Terms
  • Matter – anything that has mass and volume.
  • Atom – smallest particle that can exist and still be recognized as a certain kind of matter.
  • Element – matter that is made of only one kind of atom.
  • Compound – matter that is made of more than one kind of element, i.e.: water
elements essential for life


Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S)



Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Chlorine, Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn)

Elements Essential for Life
elements essential for animals
Elements essential for Animals
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Chlorine (Cl)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Fluorine (F)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Carbohydrates – organic compounds that living things use to get their energy. Composed of C, H, and O. Their bonds store energy.
  • Lipids – organic compounds used by organisms to get energy when carbohydrates are not available, i.e.: fats, oils, and waxes. Not soluble in water.
macromolecules continued
Macromolecules continued
  • Protein – organic compounds used for building body parts. Composed of long chains of amino acids. 20 kinds of amino acids used in all living things. They also act as enzymes.
  • Nucleic acids – proteins and CH2O can be used to form nucleic acids. Control the activities of the cell. Two types – DNA and RNA. Nucleotides are subunits of DNA & RNA.
proteins and cell structure
Proteins and Cell Structure
  • Cell structure

1. Cell membrane contains protein molecules.

2. Protein molecules help substances move into and out of the cell.


1. Produced on ribosome's.

2. Used to build body parts and cell membranes

3. Used in formation of nucleic acids.

importance of water
Importance of Water
  • Living things are made of many different atoms that are organized into thousands of different compounds. Most of the compounds that make up living things contain carbon. However, organisms also contain water, a compound that does not contain carbon.
  • Approximately 70% of body mass is water.
  • Water acts as a transport system for nutrients and wastes.
  • Compounds that dissolve in water form solutions.
properties of water
Properties of Water
  • Cohesion – the polarity of water molecules causes them to cling to one another like magnets. Water flowing from a faucet.
  • Adhesion – water molecules that are attracted to another surface. i.e.: water droplets stick to your skin after a shower.