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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund. Chapter 4: The Business Research Process . Information. Reduces uncertainty Helps focus decision making. Types Of Research. Exploratory Descriptive Causal. Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research. CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE.

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Business research methods william g zikmund

Business Research MethodsWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 4:

The Business Research Process


Information
Information

  • Reduces uncertainty

  • Helps focus decision making


Types of research
Types Of Research

  • Exploratory

  • Descriptive

  • Causal


Uncertainty influences the type of research
Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research

CAUSAL OR

DESCRIPTIVE

EXPLORATORY

COMPLETELY

CERTAIN

ABSOLUTE

AMBIGUITY


Degree of problem definition
Degree of Problem Definition

Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research

(Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined)

“Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of

we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package?

competitor’s product?”

“Would people be interested “Which of two advertising

in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?”

in our product?”

possible situation


Business research methods william g zikmund

Exploratory Research

Secondary data

Experience survey

Pilot studies


Exploratory research
Exploratory Research

  • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem

  • Does not provide conclusive evidence

  • Subsequent research expected


Descriptive research
Descriptive Research

  • Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon

  • Some understanding of the nature of the problem


Business research methods william g zikmund

I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are

and when,

and how,

and why,

what,

and where

and who.”

--Rudyard Kipling


Descriptive research example
Descriptive Research Example their names are

  • Weight Watchers average customer

  • Woman about 40 years old

  • Household income of about $50,000

  • At least some college education

  • Trying to juggle children and a job


Descriptive research example1
Descriptive Research Example their names are

  • Men’s fragrance market

  • 1/3 size of women’s fragrance market

  • But growing at a faster pace

  • Women buy 80 % of men’s fragrances


Causal research
Causal Research their names are

  • Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships


Identifying causality
Identifying Causality their names are

  • A causal relationship is impossible to prove.

  • Evidence of causality:

    • 1. The appropriate causal order of events

    • 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena vary together

    • 3. An absence of alternative plausible explanations


Business research methods william g zikmund

Stages of the Research Process their names are

Problem Discovery

and Definition

Discovery and

Definition

and so on

Research

Design

Conclusions and

Report

Sampling

Data Processing

and Analysis

Data

Gathering


Research stages
Research Stages their names are

  • Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas

  • Stages can overlap chronologically

  • Stages are functionally interrelated

    • Forward linkages

    • Backward linkages


Business research methods william g zikmund

Selection of their names are

exploratory research

technique

Problem

discovery

Problem Discovery

and Definition

Sampling

Selection of

exploratory research

technique

Probability

Nonprobability

Secondary

(historical)

data

Experience

survey

Pilot

study

Case

study

Collection of

data

(fieldwork)

Data

Gathering

Data

Processing

and

Analysis

Editing and

coding

data

Problem definition

(statement of

research objectives)

Data

processing

Selection of

basic research

method

Research Design

Conclusions

and Report

Interpretation

of

findings

Experiment

Survey

Observation

Secondary

Data Study

Report

Laboratory

Field

Interview

Questionnaire


Business research methods william g zikmund

Problem Discovery their names are

Selection of Sample Design

Exploratory Research

Collection of the Data

Selection of the Basic Research Method

The Business Research Process


Business research methods william g zikmund

Editing and Coding their names are

Report

Data Processing

Interpretation of the Findings

The Research Process (cont.)


Stages in the research process
Stages In The Research Process their names are

  • Problem Discovery and Problem Definition

  • Research Design

  • Sampling

  • Data Gathering

  • Data Processing and Analysis

  • Conclusions And Report


Problem discovery and definition
Problem Discovery And Definition their names are

  • First step

  • Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations

  • Discovery before definition

  • Problem means management problem


The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution

“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution”

Albert Einstein



Hypothesis
Hypothesis than its solution”

  • A statement

  • that can be refuted

  • by empirical data


If you do not know where you are going any road will take you there
If you do not know where you are going, than its solution”any road will take you there.


Business research methods william g zikmund

Experience than its solution”

Survey

Case

Study

Pilot

Study

Secondary

(historical)

Data

Exploratory

Research


Exploratory research techniques two examples
Exploratory Research Techniques than its solution”Two Examples

  • Secondary data (historical data)

    • Previously collected

    • Census of population

    • Literature survey

  • Pilot study

    • A number of diverse techniques


Focus group interview
Focus Group Interview than its solution”


Research design
Research Design than its solution”

  • Master plan

  • Framework for action

  • Specifies methods and procedures


Basic research methods
Basic Research Methods than its solution”

  • Surveys

  • Experiments

  • Secondary data

  • Observation


Selecting a sample
Selecting a Sample than its solution”

Sample: subset

of a larger population.

SAMPLE

POPULATION


Sampling
Sampling than its solution”

  • Who is to be sampled?

  • How large a sample?

  • How will sample units be selected?


Data gathering stage
Data Gathering Stage than its solution”


Data processing and analysis
Data Processing and Analysis than its solution”


Conclusions and report writing
Conclusions And Report Writing than its solution”

  • Effective communication of the research findings


Research proposal
Research Proposal than its solution”

  • A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study.

  • Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology


Research program strategy
Research Program Strategy than its solution”


Business research methods william g zikmund

Analysis of than its solution”

the Situation

Problem Definition

Statement of

Research Objectives

Defining Problem Results in

Clear Cut Research Objectives

Symptom Detection

Exploratory

Research

(Optional)