Bottom Quark

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# Bottom Quark - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Bottom Quark. Patricia Thrasher. Quark Basics. Strong force, Electromagnetic, Weak, Gravitational Total of 3 generations Quarks make matter Bottom quark possess all four forces Decays into up and charm quark Mass 4.13 ~ 4.37 GeV/c 2 Electric charge -1/3 e. Cabibbo Matrix.

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### Bottom Quark

Patricia Thrasher

Quark Basics
• Strong force, Electromagnetic, Weak, Gravitational
• Total of 3 generations
• Quarks make matter
• Bottom quark possess all four forces
• Decays into up and charm quark
• Mass 4.13 ~ 4.37 GeV/c2
• Electric charge -1/3 e
Cabibbo Matrix
• Unitary Matrix
• Incorporates two generations of quarks
• Cabibbo angle related to probability that down and strange quarks decay into up quark.
Prediction of New Quark
• Kobayashi and Maskawa postulate a third family
• Parameters for CP violation: three rotation angles and one phase
• Kobayashi and Maskawa awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on broken symmetry

V =

CKM Matrix
• CP violation couldn’t be explained by Cabibbo matrix. Kobayashi and Maskawa added third generation to keep track of weak decays
• CKM helps understand asymmetry in matter and antimatter
• The transition probability from quark i to quark j is proportional to the magnitude squared of the elements of the matrix Vij
C and P
• Charge conjugation turns particle into antiparticle
• Parity changes a right-hand coordinate system to a left-hand system
• C = -1 L + S odd

+1 L + S even

• P = (-1)L+1
• C and P are broken by Cabibbo and CKM matrix
CP Violation
• Combination of C and P symmetry
• CP is only broken by CKM matrix, not Cabibbo matrix
• Standard Model predicts CP violation in addition to the 9 decays seen in CKM
Discovery of Upsilon
• Upsilon meson
• In 1977 by Leon Lederman and team of physicists
• Fermilab particle accelerator enables collision of proton and antiproton with an energy of 1.96 TeV at the DZero and CDF detectors
• For every 100 billion collisions that occur, one upsilon with mass of 9.5 GeV is produced
Upsilon Meson
• Meson containing bottom and antibottom
• Upsilon (S1) mass of 9.44 +/- 0.03 and Upsilon (S2) mass 10.17 +/- 0.05 GeV
• 1.21×10−20 seconds
• Decays into charm,
• S = 1 or 0
• L = 0
• Four excited states discovered