Biotechnology in Agriculture. Chapter 11. Learning Outcomes. Describe the role of meristematic tissue in propagating plants by various asexual methods
Using breeding techniques, a plant biotechnologist can produce variety in the offspring of selected parental plants.
Asexual Plant Propagation
Identical offspring are produced by a single parent.
Methods of Asexual Plant Propagation
In PTC a few cells are grown in sterile media, with sugar, vitamins, and correct hormones.
Hormone Function in Plants
Plant Growth Regulators
Hormones, agar, nutrients
Advantages of Plant Tissue Culture Propagation
More plantlets are produced.
Produces clones of the parent with no variations.
Some plants do not propagate will other ways.
Factors to Consider in Plant Tissue Culture Propagation
The species and variety of plant material
The medium and medium ingredients
The preparation of plant samples, medium, and equipment (sterility and temperatures, etc.)
11.3 New Applications of Biotech in Agriculture and Horticulture
Selective breeding of livestock and plant crops has been practiced for centuries.
New techniques are now being applied.
Genetic Testing and Gene Transfer
With DNA fingerprinting, breeders can test parent animals and plants for several beneficial genes and recognize several undesirable genes.
Soil-less, water-based medium in which to grow plants
Plant-Made (Plant-Based) Pharmaceuticals
Since the 1970s, human proteins have been made in bacterial, fungal, or mammalian cell cultures.
The DNA used in plant biotechnology applications may be genomic DNA (gDNA) or plasmid DNA (pDNA).
Isolating Genomic DNA
Cells must be burst open.
Proteins are precipitated and removed from solution.
RNA is destroyed.
Remaining DNA is precipitated.
Isolating Plasmid DNA
Plasmid isolation kits
Buffers for plasmid isolation
Using A. tumefaciens to Genetically Engineer Plants
Transforming Agrobacterium. Before A. tumefaciens can be used to transform a plant, its Ti plasmid must be transformed with the gene(s) of interest.
Ti Plasmid. The Ti plasmid has two selection genes on it, NPT II and beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS), so that when it gets into plant cells, the plasmid transfer can be recognized. Cells receiving this plasmid will be able to survive on kanamycin-containing agar (from NPT II expression). They will also be able to convert a white carbohydrate in the medium to a blue color (due to GUS expression), which makes the entire colony blue, allowing the researcher to ascertain successful DNA transfer.
Arabidopsis thaliana has been the target of plant genetic engineering studies.