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Early Civilizations in Africa Adler Chapter 20 Extraordinary Panorama Variety in Geography Early Civilizations contact with Rome and North Africa Geographic Considerations North- Mediterranean- access to trade- coastal mountains- land for agriculture

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early civilizations in africa

Early Civilizations in Africa

Adler Chapter 20

Extraordinary Panorama

Variety in Geography

Early Civilizations contact with Rome and North Africa

geographic considerations
Geographic Considerations
  • North- Mediterranean- access to trade- coastal mountains- land for agriculture
  • East- Rift Valley- some mountains- Indian Ocean
  • West- grasslands and some rainforest along the Niger river
  • Central - equatorial- Congo-only real rainforest
  • South- high plateau- temperate climate-savanna
african civilization south of egypt
African Civilization- South of Egypt
  • Many ideas in Egypt may have come from south- agri and pyramids
  • Kush- similar to Mesopotamia- Khartoum was a major trading center 7th cen BCE Capitol Meroe
    • Rome received ivory, gold, ebony in addition to food
    • Herodotus - “People were tall and beautiful”
  • Axum took over 350CE- future Ethiopia-trade center (Queen of Sheba- converted and remained Christian)
states of west africa along the niger river
States of West Africa along the Niger River
  • Ghana- 5th cen CE- based on gold trade- middlemen- transport to Morocco- also had ivory, ostrich feathers and leather.
    • lived in splendor at capital
  • Mali- 600-1200 CE Atlantic to interior- converted to Islam- Mansa Musa(p 232) went to Mecca- depressed the gold market-(Gold, Salt and slaves- tax key to wealth)
    • area still Muslim- Arabic language unifying force
south african civilizations zimbabwe on the zambezi river
South African CivilizationsZimbabwe on the Zambezi (River)
  • located on the grasslands between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers
  • 1871- German explorer Karl Mauch found the remains of a powerful and prosperous civilization
  • city (10,000) wall of cement and stone 38 feet high
  • found ornaments of gold, copper, porcelain from China
  • wealth source- tax on cattle and gold trade
  • German Mauch- did not give credit to Africans- prejudice
  • historians recognize and give credit to Africans.p 234
general comments on african civilizations
General Comments on African Civilizations
  • Were varied like the geography
  • trade centers were important esp in east with India and No Africa with the Med region
  • Islam dominated in north- Ethiopia was isolated
  • Islam helped to unite N Africa- same language
  • Historians continue to learn more