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Introducing the Selection Literary Focus: Metaphor Literary Focus: Literary Perspectives PowerPoint Presentation
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Introducing the Selection Literary Focus: Metaphor Literary Focus: Literary Perspectives

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  1. from Walden, or Life in the Woodsby Henry David Thoreau Feature Menu Introducing the Selection Literary Focus: Metaphor Literary Focus: Literary Perspectives Reading Focus: Making Generalizations About a Writer’s Beliefs Writing Focus: Think as a Reader/Writer

  2. from Walden, or Life in the Woodsby Henry David Thoreau Where does an individual find inspiration?

  3. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsIntroducing the Selection Click on the title to start the video.

  4. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsIntroducing the Selection In 1845, Thoreau went to live in a small cabin on Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts. Walden is his famous account of his two-year experiment in simple living. These excerpts relate • his day-to-day experiences of life in the woods • his ideas about what constitutes a life worth living

  5. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsIntroducing the Selection What would it be like to live alone in a cabin in the woods, with no company but the birds and other animals? Would you be lonely, bored? Or would you, like Thoreau, feel more alive than before? [End of Section]

  6. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Literary Focus: Metaphor Ametaphoris a figure of speech that makes an implicit, or implied, comparison between two unlike things. • A metaphor does not use a specific word of comparison such as like, as, than, or resembles. • Instead, a metaphor says that something is something else.

  7. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Literary Focus: Metaphor Thoreau’s metaphors are • highly visual • drawn from nature and from everyday, familiar things I did not wish to take a cabin passage, but rather to go before the mast and on the deck of the world, for there I could best see the moonlight amid the mountains. —Henry David Thoreau

  8. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Literary Focus: Metaphor I did not wish to take acabin passage, but rather to gobefore the mast and on the deck of the world, for there I could best see the moonlight amid the mountains. — Henry David Thoreau Work on a ship to pay for one’s passage. Enjoy the exhilaration of working on the deck—salt spray, crack of sails, sense of danger. Buy a ticket for a cabin on a ship. Travel in safety and comfort. Meals in the dining room, comfortable bed in your cabin.

  9. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Literary Focus: Metaphor In the metaphor, different ways of living are compared to different ways of traveling on a ship. I did not wish to take a cabin passage, but rather to go before the mast and on the deck of the world, for there I could best see the moonlight amid the mountains. —Henry David Thoreau The comparison is Thoreau’s imaginative, fresh way of saying he doesn’t want to be safe and comfortable. He wants adventure. [End of Section]

  10. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsLiterary Focus: Analyzing Philosophical Context Philosophical Criticism Some students and literary critics examine how philosophies—or belief systems—influence a writer. This approach is called philosophical criticism.

  11. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsLiterary Focus: Analyzing Philosophical Context Philosophical Criticism Philosophical criticism is important any time you are reading an essay that directly states the writer’s beliefs about right ways to live. Thoreau wrote such essays. As you read Walden, think about the philosophical context.

  12. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsLiterary Focus: Analyzing Philosophical Context Thoreau and Transcendentalism Thoreau belonged to a group of thinkers and writers called the Transcendentalists. Transcendentalism is the idea that a person must go beyond everyday human experience in the physical world in order to determine the ultimate reality of God, the universe, and the self.

  13. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsLiterary Focus: Analyzing Philosophical Context Thoreau and Transcendentalism The verb transcend comes from Latin roots meaning “to climb beyond.” Notice how often Thoreau suggests that individuals can climb beyond the confinement of everyday life and reach a higher spiritual place.

  14. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsLiterary Focus: Analyzing Philosophical Context Thoreau and Transcendentalism Also think about how Thoreau’s beliefs compare with those of other writers of the time. • To what extent does Thoreau share the optimistic views of his friend and fellow Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson? • Some critics consider Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe anti-Transcendentalists. How does Thoreau’s view of human nature compare with theirs?

  15. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Reading Focus: Making Generalizations About a Writer’s Beliefs A generalization is a type of inference in which a conclusion is drawn from examples in the text. Examples in Text Generalization Some of my pleasantest hours were during the long rainstorms . . . which confined me to the house. . . . Solitude is a valuable state that helps us understand the true meaning of life. What do we want most to dwell near to? Not to many men surely . . . but to the perennial source of our life. . . . —Henry David Thoreau

  16. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Reading Focus: Making Generalizations About a Writer’s Beliefs You can make generalizations about a writer’s beliefs based on what you read. Generalization Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed. . . . If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. It is not important that he should mature as soon as an apple tree or an oak. —Henry David Thoreau Thoreau believes anyone can discover a unique path in life, but this discovery comes at different times for different people.

  17. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Reading Focus: Making Generalizations About a Writer’s Beliefs Into Action: Use a chart like this one to record Thoreau’s metaphors and any generalizations you can make based on those metaphors. Metaphors and Generalizations Chart Metaphors Generalizations “Did you ever think what those sleepers are that underlie the railroad? Each one is a man, an Irishman, or a Yankee man.” Thoreau felt many individuals in society were being trod upon by other, more fortunate people. [End of Section]

  18. from Walden, or Life in the Woods Writing Focus: Think as a Reader/Writer Find It in Your Reading Thoreau’s metaphors are often drawn from nature and everyday things. In the meanwhile there came along a single red ant on the hillside of this valley, evidently full of excitement, who either had dispatched his foe, or had not yet taken part in the battle. . . . —Henry David Thoreau As you read, note how these metaphors echo Thoreau’s idea that simple things can have a profound meaning. Keep a list of the metaphors, and write down a paraphrase of each one to make sure you understand its meaning.

  19. Vocabulary

  20. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary superficialadj.: on the surface; shallow. incessantlyadv.: without stopping; constantly. derisionn.: ridicule or contempt. tumultuousadj.: very noisy, disorderly, or violent. etherealadj.: not of the earth; spiritual.

  21. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary The word superficialcan be used to refer to physical injury or damage: The scratch on the car is superficial. The girl has a superficial wound. The wound and the scratch are on the surface alone. Neither is very deep.

  22. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Superficialcan also refer to people or to mental processes. Jean has a superficial understanding of history. Jake is a pretty superficial guy. Does he have many deep friendships? Would you want her as a study partner for social studies?

  23. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Carlos gave the living room a superficial cleaning before the party. • How clean is the living room? • extremely clean • somewhat clean • not clean at all

  24. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Carlos gave the living room a superficial cleaning before the party. • How clean is the living room? • extremely clean • somewhat clean • not clean at all

  25. Definition: Word: Sentence: Image: from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary When you think incessantly, what words come to mind? adv.: without stopping. Examples: incessantly constantly ceaselessly persistently The dog barks incessantly when left in the yard. without interruption never-ending

  26. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary It has been snowing incessantly for the past six hours. Which scene are you more likely to see when you look out the window? Scene A Scene B

  27. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary It has been snowing incessantly for the past six hours. Which scene are you more likely to see when you look out the window? Scene A Scene B

  28. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary The word derision is based on the verb deride, which means “to laugh at scornfully” or “to make fun of.” Which image best illustrates the meaning of derision?

  29. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Since he took office a year ago, Mayor Perkins has become the object of much derision. • Mayor Perkins is probably • doing a really good job lowering the crime rate • gaining the respect of most citizens • proposing changes that people find silly or unwise

  30. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Since he took office a year ago, Mayor Perkins has become the object of much derision. • Mayor Perkins is probably • doing a really good job lowering the crime rate • gaining the respect of most citizens • proposing changes that people find silly or unwise

  31. Examples: from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary When you think tumultuous,what words and phrases come to mind? What places or activities might be tumultuous? Associations: noisy a big city street violent a battle in a war tumultuous uproar a hurricane rowdy a preschool playground stormy a crowd in a natural disaster disorder

  32. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary A tumultuous crowd of Hawks fans made their way out of the stadium. Do you think the Hawks won the game? Was it an exciting game? Yes. The fans are happy and excited.

  33. airy intellectual heavenly substantial spiritual celestial from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Ancient thinkers believed that a very light substance called ether made up all of outer space. Something that is ethereal is like the upper reaches of space. It is very light and not earthly. Which words are synonyms for ethereal?

  34. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Which of these people most likely spends a lot of time thinking about ethereal matters? A B C

  35. from Walden, or Life in the WoodsVocabulary Which of these people most likely spends a lot of time thinking about ethereal matters? A B C

  36. The End