Agricultural Biotechnology Iqbal Harbi Mohammed General Board of date Palm
What is biotechnology? • as a set of tools that uses living organisms (or partsof organisms) to make or modify a product, improve plants, trees or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses. Agricultural biotechnology is the term used in crop and livestock improvement through biotechnology tools Biotechnology encompasses a number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, plant physiology, and molecular biology.
The biotechnology tools that are important for agricultural biotechnologyinclude • Conventional plant breeding • - Tissue culture and micropropagation • - Molecular breeding or marker assisted selection • - Genetic engineering and GM crops • - Molecular Diagnostic Tools
Integration of conventional and modern biotechnology methods in crop breeding
The Applications of Biotechnology • Agricultural Biotechnology • Plant agriculture • Animal agriculture • Food processing
Agricultural Biotechnology in Iraq • Ministry of Agriculture: - Tissue culture laboratory - Biotechnology laboratory
Why is Plant Tissue Culture Important? • It has made significant contributions in: • The production of plant material • Plant breeding • Gene banks • The production of chemical compounds
Biotechnology laboratory A) Infrastructure: • DNA extraction. • PCR amplification. • Agarose and PAGE gel-electrophoresis. • DNA fingerprinting
B) The human resources: • Biotechnology expert (Ph.D.) • Tissue Culture expert (Ph.D) • Agriculture engineers (M.Sc.) • Agriculture engineers (B.Sc.) • Technicians • Temporary technicians • Workers
C) Objectives: • Introduction of tissue culture and molecular techniques to the • Iraq. • propagation of local and imported date palm cultivars (and other species )using the tissue culture technique. • Multiplication of other plant species for different national projects. • Establishment of a genetic map for date palms and other species.(olive,potato.wheat,Barley,) • Molecular characterization of the Iraq genetic resources. • Molecular diagnostics.
Identification of genetically modified crops • Identification of fingerprint by protien electrophorese • Checking of the genetic stability of tissue culture plants • DNA finger printing for many plant species by using different types of molecular markers • RAPD • AFLP • SSR
Development of a date palm breeding program. • Fingerprinting of date palms cultivars.
2 Applications of Biotechnology
Biofertilizers The term biofertilizer refers to preparation containing live microbes which helps in enhancing the soil fertility either by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphorus or decomposing organic wastes or by augmenting plant growth by producing growth hormones with their biological activities. Rhizobium Bacteria Bacteria in root surface Bacteria in root surface Legume inoculation
Advantages of Biofertilizers Renewable source of nutrients Sustain soil health Supplement chemical fertilizers. Replace 25-30% chemical fertilizers Increase the grain yields by 10-40%. Decompose plant residues, and stabilize C:N ratio of soil Improve texture, structure and water holding capacity of soil No adverse effect on plant growth and soil fertility. Stimulates plant growth by secreting growth hormones. Secrete fungistatic and antibiotic like substances Solubilize and mobilize nutrients Eco-friendly, non-pollutants and cost effective method
BIOFERTILIZER ORGANISMS RHIZOBIUM AZOTOBACTER PSB BLUE GREEN ALGAE AZOSPIRILLUM VA-MYCORRHIZA
Organic fertilizers an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony.”
the Important Role of Organic Matter in Soils Physical - Improves aggregation (glue) - Improves water holding capacity (surface area) Chemical - Increases nutrient availability (cycling, P and micronutrient solubility - Increases CEC (200 cmolc kg-1) - Buffers the soil against pH changes Biological - Increases microbial diversity - Assists in pathogen suppression
Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology network • The network will enable scientists of member countries to get acquainted with experiences gained and progress achieved. • The network will enable scientists to learn more about recent advances in technologies. • Less developed countries will capitalize on more advance member countries in training..
Justification for establishing agricultural biotechnology network • The network will allow less advanced countries get acquainted with these achievements and adopt them . • The network will help less advanced countries learn more on how biotechnology research has been integrated in development . • How decision makers came to support this type of research. • Lessons learnt can be made available via the network in the annual meetings or through the periodical publications.
Recommendations • Develop an annual report for each joint research presented in each country in the field of agricultural and biological technologies by way which is accessible, compares them and identifies common similarities and differences. • Conduct joint research on some of the common crops grown between the participating countries to enable work out through the study of environmental and genetic conditions that affect the quality and productivity of these crops. • Development of a shared location (web site) for the dissemination of research and the latest developments.