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Muscles. function, actions and identification of major superficial muscles, some conditions and treatments. types of muscles. Three structurally and functionally distinct types of muscle are found in vertebrates: smooth muscle , skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle . .

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function, actions and

identification of

major superficial muscles, some conditions and treatments

types of muscles
types of muscles

Three structurally and functionally distinct types of muscle are found in vertebrates:

  • smooth muscle,
  • skeletal muscle and
  • cardiac muscle.
functions of skeletal muscles
functions of skeletal muscles
  • movement
  • posture
  • heat production
  • shape
  • facial expressions
  • chewing, swallowing
  • reflexes
naming skeletal muscles
naming skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscles are named according to structural and/or functional characteristics.

  • Location - temporalis (temporal bone) and tibialis anterior (front of tibia)
  • Size - maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (longest), brevis (shortest)
  • Shape – deltoid (triangular), trapezius (trapezoid), serratus (saw-like edge)
more on naming muscles
more on naming muscles
  • Direction of fibers – rectus (parrallel to midline), transverse (perpendicular to midline), oblique (diagonal to midline)
  • Number of origins – biceps (2), triceps (3), quadriceps (4)
  • Origin and insertion – sternocleidomastoid is named for the two places of origin as well as its insertion.
  • Action – what the muscle does when “at work.”
actions of skeletal muscles
actions of skeletal muscles
  • flexion-movement that decreases the angle @ a joint
  • extension-movement that increases the angle @ a joint.
abd and add
abd and add
  • abduction-movement of an appendage away from the midline.
  • adduction-movement of an appendage towards the midline.
  • rotation -turning around the longitudinal axis @ a joint.Can only occur at a pivot (radio-ulna / neck) or ball & socket (shoulder / hip) joint.
  • circumduction-Is a movement found @ ball & socket (hip & shoulder) and condyloid joints (wrist / ankle / knuckles).
supination pronation
supination- pronation
  • supination -medial rotation of the forearm at the Radio Ulna joint, so the palms face up.
  • pronation -Lateral rotation of forearm at the Radio Ulna joint, so the palms face down.
inversion eversion
inversion -eversion
  • inversion- twisting of the foot so that the sole faces inward.
  • eversion- Twisting of the foot so that the sole faces outward.
dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

dorsiflexion– toe towards the knee usingtibialis anterior

plantar flexion–”point toes” usinggastrocnemius

shoulder girdle movements
shoulder girdle movements

elevation - Upward movement of the shoulder girdle.

depression - Downward movement of the shoulder girdle..Depression

protraction and retraction are all movements associated with the shoulder girdle.


1. Lateral rotation

2. medial rotation

3. Supination

4. Pronation

5. Eversion

6. Inversion

7. Adduction

8. Abduction

what do you know about these muscles
What do you know about these muscles?
  • Flexor carpi ulnaris
  • Extensor carpi radialis
  • Latissimis dorsi
  • Transversus abdominis
  • Rectus femoris
  • Deltoid
  • Trapezius
  • Orbicularis oris, Orbicularis oculi
  • Sternocleidomastoideus
skeletal muscle facts
skeletal muscle facts
  • Skeletal muscle consists of very long tubular cells. The average length of skeletal muscle cells in humans is about 3 cm (sartorius muscle up to 30 cm, stapedius muscle only about 1 mm). Their diameters vary from 10 to 100 µm.
  • Skeletal muscle fibres contain many peripherally placed nuclei.Up to several hundred rather small nuclei with 1 or 2 nucleoli are located just beneath the plasma membrane.
facts continued
facts, continued
  • Skeletal muscle fibres show in many preparations characteristic cross-striations. It is therefore also called striated muscle.
  • Skeletal muscle is innervated by the somatic nervous system.
  • Skeletal muscle makes up the voluntary muscle.
what students of anatomy learn about the skeletal muscles
what students of anatomy learn about the skeletal muscles
  • over 600 named muscles in human
  • makes up 40-50% of body weight
  • the physiology of muscle action
  • name, location, action, origin, insertion and often the nerve that serves the muscle
the players
the players

myofibrils contract instantly if ATP and Ca2+ is added to them, meaning that it is these single myofibrils which are the force generators in muscle cells.


Striated sarcomeres are separated by Z-discs. Two Z-discs bound a sarcomere in the direction of stretching. Thin filaments made of Actin are attached to each of these discs and extend towards each other inside the sarcomere. They do not overlap in the sarcomere’s striated form. In this case there is a dark band visible between the Z-discs. This is made up of the thick Myosin filaments which overlap partially with the thin Actin filaments which extend into a light half of the I-Band region left and right of the dark A-band.

contraction shorten
contraction = shorten

When Myofibrils contract the thin and thick filaments move past each other. Each sarcomere unit of the myofibrils shortens proportionally to the muscle contraction. Upon contraction, it is the light bands which shorten whereas the dark bands do not change in length. This is explained by the Actin filaments sliding into the dark region of Myosin filaments.

thick and thin
thick and thin

Actin - the thin filaments

Myosin - the thick filaments


During contraction, actin fibers are pulled inward

a) pulling is by "hooks" on myosin (myosin heads)

b) hooks bend, using energy of ATP

c) each hook pulls, releases, pulls again until muscle is contracted

d) calcium (Ca2+) ions signal this to start

-Ca2+ into muscle starts contraction

-during relaxation, Ca2+ is transported out  

muscle ends
muscle ends
  • origin-stationary end, the anchor
  • insertion- moved end
  • belly- the area in between

NOTE: These pictures are intended to provide a virtual tour of the lab models and specimens.  They are not intended to substitute for classroom/lab learning. They are simply supplemental material for you to use as reminders of what you should study or have already studied.

superficial muscles
superficial muscles

Muscles which occupy the layer closest to the surface of the skin are called superficial muscles. These are easily displayed on a person who has developed their physique for show or physical performance.

major muscles of face
major muscles of face
  • frontalis
  • orbicularis oculi
  • nasalis
  • temporalis
  • orbicularis oris
  • zygomaticus major
  • masseter
  • mentalis
  • levator labii superioris
facial muscles around the mouth directions of muscle contraction
Facial muscles around the mouth, directions of muscle contraction

Alevator labii superioris

B zygomaticus minor

C zygomaticus major

D risorius

E depressor anguli oris

F labii inferioris,

G orbicularis oris

muscles of mastication
muscles of mastication
  • temporalis
  • medial and lateral pterygoids
  • masseter

masseter and directions of the lower jawbone movement


sternocleidomastoid muscle is the main muscle on the side of the neck.

neck pain
neck pain

The trapezius muscle is the one that tenses up most often. When you see people reaching back to massage their shoulders, it is the trapezius muscle that they are trying to loosen.

The other two muscles that have a tendency to tighten up are the sternocleidomastoid (often called the sterno-mastoid) and the scalene muscles.

Keep it Moving! The neck is by far the most mobile portion of the spine. Its ROM is generally 70 to 90 degrees.

bones of the neck review
bones of the neck, review

The bones of the neck are called the cervical vertebrae.

Every mammal on earth, even the giraffe, has 7 of them. In humans, the cervical vertebrae are obviously a lot smaller than those of giraffes. They are also a lot smaller than the vertebrae of the other areas of the human spine.

neck pain1
neck pain?

Our necks need to use their mobility in order to maintain it. They work best when they can consistently move into and out of their full range of motion in a gentle - that is, not a jarring - way.

non used necks injuries
non-used necks = injuries

We rotate our necks fully when we look over our shoulder and then back the car down the driveway. We extend our necks completely when we look up at the ceiling.

The fact that we do not do these things often is one of the major reasons why our necks cause us problems. On occasion, when it’s essential for the neck to move to an extreme range of motion, it can’t cope with the job. That’s when injuries occur.


The trapezius covers a large section of the upper back. It conceals the upper part of the shoulder blade.

latissimus dorsi
latissimus dorsi
  • The latissimus dorsi occupy the middle back on either side.
  • The gluteus maximus make up the back of the buttocks.
abdominal muscles
abdominal muscles

4 muscles of the abdominal area

rectus abdominis

external oblique

internal oblique NS

transversus abdominis NS

superficial muscles of the chest and front of the arm
superficial muscles of the chest and front of the arm.
  • The shoulder muscles are called deltoids. These triangular muscles define the upper shoulders
  • biceps brachii are easily recognizable large bumps on the upper inside of the arm
  • The pectoralis muscles span the chest
superficial muscles of the posterior arm
superficial muscles of the posterior arm

triceps brachii – extends the arm, straightening the elbow

anterior muscles of the thigh
anterior muscles of the thigh
  • Quads: extensor of knee

rectus femoris

vastus lateralis

vastus medius

vastus intermedialis

  • sartorius: cross leg
  • gracilis: adducts leg
posterior muscles of the thigh
posterior muscles of the thigh

The hamstring muscle group comprises three muscles –

  • biceps femoris
  • semitendonosus
  • semimembranosus

The action of these muscles is to bend the knee and extend the hip.

adductors of the thigh
adductors of the thigh

adductor magnus, longus, brevis and the pectineus, make up the adductor group. 

Groin pulls are a strain at the attachment of the adductors to the pubic bone.

major muscle of lower leg anterior
major muscle of lower leg - anterior
  • tibialis anterior: flexes the foot – pulls foot toward the knee
muscles of lower leg posterior calf muscles
muscles of lower leg -posterior - calf muscles

gastrocnemius is the calf muscle which are each divided into two hemispheres.


soleus and achilles tendon
soleus and Achilles tendon

This picture illustrates the relationship between the superficial gastrocnemius muscle, the deeper soleus muscle and the large Achilles tendon which is visible attaching to the heel.

atrophy hypertrophy
atrophy - hypertrophy
  • no use
  • average use
  • increased use
muscle twitch
muscle twitch
  • cycle of contraction and relaxation
  • latent phase

Tetany-stimuli is so fast that muscle cannot relax - stays contracted

(tetanus - bacterial toxin interferes with motor neuron function, uncontrolled stimulation)

chondromalacia runner s knee
chondromalacia (runner's knee)

Wearing away and/or softening of the articular cartilage, tissue that covers and protects the underside of the patella, the bottom end of the femur, and top end of the tibia. It absorbs stress to the knee joint and allows the patella to track smoothly in its femoral groove.Causes: Typically, excessive running Symptoms: Pain around the patella (kneecap), usually occurring on the medial (inner) side and below (inferior aspect of the patella).

doctor and pt
doctor and PT
  • Recommended Treatment:R.I.C.E. - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. Reduce activity to promote healing. Avoid downhill runs especially. Strengthen surrounding muscles with a professionally recommended program. Apply Ice for 10-15 minutes after each workout to reduce inflammation and pain. (If any skin irritation or adverse reaction occurs due to icing, see your medical doctor). A proper stretching(Quadriceps, Iliotibial Band) routine is highly recommended pre and post workouts. As with any orthopedic injury, a consultation with a sports medicine professional is recommended.
hamstring strain tear
hamstring strain/tear

occurs when excessive or repetitive stress causes tearing of the muscle fibers in the hamstring.Causes: Tight hamstring muscles, muscle imbalance, sudden movement, and repetitive strain are all common types of hamstring injuries. Symptoms: A sharp pain may be felt in the hamstring when a serious strain or tear occurs. This often happens during such action as an explosive move in basketball or a quick sprint. If you feel a deep ache in the hamstring area it may be a less severe strain or minor tear.

intramuscular injection
intramuscular injection

intramuscular injection delivers medicine directly into the muscle


gluteus medius


Intramuscular injections are the deepest injection type, delivering the medication into the muscle tissue. Most vaccines are currently delivered to the intramuscular depth.

Subcutaneous injections are delivered to the adipose (fat) layer just below the skin. Many therapeutic proteins are delivered to the subcutaneous depth, such as human growth hormone.

Intradermal injections are very shallow injections that deposit the medication between the layers of the skin. Many new DNA-based vaccines are delivered to the intradermal layer.

muscular disorders
muscular disorders
  • Atrophy
    • decrease in size of muscle fibers
    • Disuse atrophy - bedridden individuals, casts
    • Denervation atrophy - loss of nerves and muscle function
  • Muscular Dystrophy - (Duchenne MD)

Loss of muscle fibers

Linked to young males (ages 3-5)

Lacking certain protein thus allows too much Ca+ into cell this leads to cell death and replacement with scarring

muscular disorders1
muscular disorders
  • Myasthenia gravis
    • autoimmune disease
    • antibodies bind to ACh receptors
    • atrophy of muscle fibers
    • drugs that keep levels of ACh high are used
what happens in rigor mortis
what happens in rigor mortis?

Ca++ pumps run out of ATP

Ca++ cannot be removed

continuous contraction

eventually tissues break down


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