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Biology 3850A Aquatic Ecology Time: Monday/Wednesday/Friday 10:00-10:50 AM, Jan 07-Apr 17, 2009 Place: WE 1001 Instructor: Dr. Joseph B. Rasmussen—office hours by appt. Professor, Department of Biological Sciences Canada Research Council Chair in Aquatic Ecosystems Office: WE1050 WESB Phone: (403) 382-7182 Email: email@example.com
Lab Assignments—8% each I : The watershed and stream dynamics— II. Morphometry and dynamics of lakes— III: Primary production: calculation of 1o productivity IV. Phosphorus loading models and eutrophication V. Secondary producers: fish productivity and management
Aquatic Ecosystems Definition of Eco-system System –many components functionally interacting most of these components are living organisms genetically unique and always changing (evolution) Composed of the biological community (many species populations) Interacting with the physical world Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are very different in their physical character and this has a major impact on the way nutrients cycle as well as on the types of organisms that are found there. -Key physical processes in aquatic systems—flow and sedimentation (mud) -flow brings nutrients into the system from the surrounding landscape (watershed), and cause them to be lost as well. Next: people who have played a major role in the development of Aquatic Ecosystem concepts
Stephen Forbes,1887 “The Lake as a Microcosm” Founder of the Illinois Natural History Survey Well known for his work on aquatic insects and fishes, and for his description of aquatic food chains in small lakes and ponds. His writings stressed the isolated autonomous character, the separateness of lakes/ponds from the surrounding landscape.
The Productivity of Waters and their Nutrient status Einar Naumann August Thienemann Founders of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology
The thermal structure and energy budget of lakes, the thermocline Edward Birge and Chancey Juday sampling zooplankton in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin
Trophodynamic processes Nutrient cycling in lakes G. Evelyn Hutchinson Yale University
Charles S. Elton, • The food pyramid and the trophic web • also wrote the first book on the ecological impacts of exotic species invasions
Eugene P. Odum, 1913 - 2002. Odum is widely considered to be the “Father” of ecosystem ecology Pioneered research into the use of radioactive tracers and dissolved oxygen cycles to study primary production in aquatic ecosystems. Author of Fundamentals of Ecology, 1953
Cedar Bog Lake • Ph.D 1941 from the University of Minnesota • died at age 27 but is still remembered for • “The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology, Ecology 23: 399-418)” • from his thesis work on Cedar Bog, Minnesota. • This paper has since become the foundation for research on the flow of energy in plant and animal communities. Raymond Lindeman 1915-42 energy flow through the foodweb could be analyzed by dynamic models
Ecosystem services that freshwater ecosystems provide • Food • Water supply for drinking, agriculture and industry • Transport • Water storage • Hydroelectric power • Assimilation of pollutants • Recreation • Nutrient transport for fisheries • Ecosystem services are economically valuable services provided “free” by natural ecosystems. By free we mean either at no cost or at a cost well below that of a manufactured substitute.
Dams and wiers for hydroelectric power, flood control, and water storage.
Waste disposal Domestic and industrial
Assimilative capacity The sewage treatment plant downstream from Lethbridge
Golf courses are huge water users. The golf courses are the greenest part of Lethbridge during the summer