Introduction to ANALYSIS

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# Introduction to ANALYSIS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Introduction to ANALYSIS. Why a person should not fear Statistics. Even babies can love statistics…. And even professors love babies…. Statistics is a way to get INFORMATION from data. It may look complicated…. London Heathrow Airport. http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=^DJI.

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### Introduction to ANALYSIS

Some other statistics….

http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/

Let’s take a look at what statisticsare and

what they do.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

History

Karl Pearson

1857-1936

Charles Darwin

1809-1882

Francis Galton

1822-1911

Charles Spearman

1863-1945

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

1. Census

2. Sample

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

1. Census

2. Sample

a. Describe

b. Infer

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

Sample

Two types of analysis

1. Descriptive

2. Inferential

Probability

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

The Probability that what we find in the

Sample will apply to the whole Population.

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

Whenever a sample is utilized, there will

always be a “sampling error.”

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

Whenever a sample is utilized, there will

always be a “sampling error.”

That “sampling error” will increase as the

variability of the measure increases.

That “sampling error” will decrease as the

size of the sample increases.

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

The “sampling error.”

Most inferential statistics are simply the number of

sampling errors a finding is from what was expected.

THIS

is the universal statistic….

The universal statistic….

For example, the t-test is:

Ferguson’s Epitaph for a Statistician

With no applause from saint or devil

He was significant at the .05 level.

He squeezed life’s data, but when done

He failed to reach the .01.

Fergusons, G. A. (1981). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education

(5th Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York.