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Introduction to ANALYSIS. Why a person should not fear Statistics. Even babies can love statistics…. And even professors love babies…. Statistics is a way to get INFORMATION from data. It may look complicated…. London Heathrow Airport. http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=^DJI.

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slide17

Some other statistics….

http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/

http://www.x-rates.com/d/CAD/CNY/graph120.html

slide18

Let’s take a look at what statisticsare and

what they do.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

slide19

History

Karl Pearson

1857-1936

Charles Darwin

1809-1882

Francis Galton

1822-1911

Charles Spearman

1863-1945

slide20

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

1. Census

2. Sample

slide21

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

1. Census

2. Sample

a. Describe

b. Infer

slide22

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Who (what) are we studying?

Population

Sample

Two types of analysis

1. Descriptive

2. Inferential

Probability

slide23

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

The Probability that what we find in the

Sample will apply to the whole Population.

slide24

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

Whenever a sample is utilized, there will

always be a “sampling error.”

slide25

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

Whenever a sample is utilized, there will

always be a “sampling error.”

That “sampling error” will increase as the

variability of the measure increases.

That “sampling error” will decrease as the

size of the sample increases.

slide26

Statistics:

Getting information from data.

Inferential

The “sampling error.”

slide27

Most inferential statistics are simply the number of

sampling errors a finding is from what was expected.

slide28

THIS

is the universal statistic….

slide29

The universal statistic….

For example, the t-test is:

slide31

Ferguson’s Epitaph for a Statistician

With no applause from saint or devil

He was significant at the .05 level.

He squeezed life’s data, but when done

He failed to reach the .01.

Fergusons, G. A. (1981). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education

(5th Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York.