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Urban Redevelopment. Arjun Patel, Emily Mitchell, Joe Gayton, Austin Ates, Brendan Koll, Megan Von Borstel. Urbanization and Decline. Starting in the 1940's up through today, white flight has moved thousands from the inner city mostly out into western suburbs.

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urban redevelopment

Urban Redevelopment

Arjun Patel, Emily Mitchell, Joe Gayton, Austin Ates, Brendan Koll, Megan Von Borstel

urbanization and decline
Urbanization and Decline
  • Starting in the 1940's up through today, white flight has moved thousands from the inner city mostly out into western suburbs.
  • African American settlements moved into the tracts abandoned by the whites, but upper and middle class blacks also fled to the county.
  • Historically, St. Louis has set up policies dividing the city by race, leaving blacks strictly in certain wards, and whites almost exclusively in the county.
  • Even though zoning was used as racial divisions, their intended purpose was also to protect public safety and property values.

Five specialized laws called for revitalization of St. Louis spanning from the 1940s up to today.

  • Land Clearance for Redevelopment Authority (1951) gave the city the power to blight, acquire, and clear land.
  • Housing Acts (1930s-1940s) served to end discrimination in housing and provide aid to low income areas.
  • Model Cities (1967-72) gave federal money to poor, residential areas in need of aid.
  • Tax Increment Funding (1982) froze property values, then redirected a portion of property taxes to a special fund.
  • Enterprise Zones (1982) granted state tax credits for improvement in areas with high unemployment and low incomes.
tiffany neighborhood
Tiffany Neighborhood

Tiffany Neighborhood

  • South St. Louis neighborhood bound by Chouteau Avenue to the north, I-44 to the south, Grand Boulevard to the east and 39th Street to the west.
  • Small neighborhood in both area and number of residents because the area is mostly occupied by SLU Medical Center. North end is largely industrial.
  • Population is 83% black, 12% white, 3% Asian and 2% Hispanic/Latino. Resident units have a 88% occupancy rate
  • In late 19th century, the Tiffany streetcar line transformed the neighborhood into a middle-class suburb.
  • Almost 1 year ago, part of the Pevely dairy caught fire and collapsed, leaving a big hole in the streetscape along Grand near Choteau.
forest park southeast
Forest Park Southeast
  • South St. Louis neighborhood bound by I-64 to the north, I-44 to the south, Vandeventer to the east and Kingshighway to the west.
  • 2010 Census data: 64% black, 30% white, 2% Asian and 2% Hispanic/Latino. 21% decrease in residents.

French & Spanish language immersion charter school.

  • The neighborhood was originally marketed as the city's first "subdivision" and was popular because of its convenient proximity to downtown and industry.
  • Commercial development occurred primarily between 1930 and 1950.
central west end
Central West End
  • Anchored by the Washington University Medical Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis Children's Hospital, and St. Louis University High.
  • 2010 Census: 58% White, 28% black, 11% Asian, and 3% Hispanic.
  • From 2000 to 2010, there was actually a 2% increase in residents, totaling approximately 14,428 residents.
  • Resident units have a 89% occupancy rate
  • Bound by Oakland to the north, Manchester to the south, Macklind to the east and Hampton to the west.
  • Began as factory dominated neighborhood employing Irish, German, and Polish immigrants.
  • Transitioned into more of a suburban area known for the Highland Amusement Park and the Arena.
  • Today, it is a mostly industrial neighborhood anchored by the Forest Park community college and Highlands offices and condos.
  • Demographics: 80% white, 14% black, 6% others.
  • Very small residency, but with 90% occupancy.
  • Often considered the "Geographical Center of St. Louis".
  • In 2000, the population totaled 4,408 residents, who were 65% white, 27% black, 5% Asian, 3% Hispanic.
  • 81% occupancy rate with 99% renting
  • Grounded by Saint Louis University, and SLU's affiliated property
  • Most of residents are SLU students
  • SLU is responsible for massive restoration and redevelopment in the area for the past couple of decades
grand center arts district
Grand Center (Arts District)
  • North-central neighborhood
  • In 2010, population was 56.% black, 35% white, 7% Asian, and 2% other.
  • Often referred to as the "Arts District" because of the Fox Theatre, Powell Symphony Hall, and its many museums.
  • Has three National Historic Districts
  • Anchor institutions include the KETC Channel 9 (PBS) and the John Cochran VA Medical Center.
  • Notable schools include the Grand Center Arts Academy, Cardinal Ritter College Preparatory and the Clyde Miller Career Academy.
characteristics of the 17th ward
Characteristics of the 17th Ward

Census Tracts used:

1045-King's Oak

1173-Tiffany/Gate District/Botanical Heights


1185-Gate District/Tiffany

1186-Midtown/Central West End

1191-Central West End

17th Ward Statistics
  • The 17th Ward is a relatively young population. Notable is Midtown with an average age of 21.7.
  • Roughly 38.1% of the households contain families. The average family size is 2.92. This correlates to the young population, as many of the citizens are just beginning their independent lives.
  • Of the 14,573 citizens 16 or older, about 58.9% are in the labor force. The 17th Ward has an unemployment rate of about 10.6%, higher than the national unemployment rate of 7.9% as of October 2012.
  • Overall, 52.75% of the 17th Ward is Caucasian and 39.13% is African American with 9.22% identifying as "Other".
Crime in the 17th Ward
  • The Total Crime Index is 702, which is the fourth highest out of 28 wards.
  • The majority of crime that occurs in the 17th ward is committed against property as opposed to against a person.
  • The greatest occurrence of personal crime is aggravated assault and the greatest occurrence of property crime is larceny.
important things to consider
Important Things to Consider
  • Slightly over 1/3 of the working population works in the educational, health, or social service industry. This is the highest concentration in a single industry. More than 75% of the population receive private wages rather than government wages.
  • While 26.9% of the population in King's Oak are working with a high school degree, King's Oak has the highest percentage of citizens in the labor force: 72.8%.
  • Average household income: $42,524
17th ward anchor institutions
17th Ward Anchor Institutions

St. Louis University-Midtown

St. Louis Science Center-King’s Oak

St. Louis Community College at Forest Park-Cheltenham

Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital-Midtown

Washington University Medical Center/Barnes-Jewish Hospital-Central West End

Cortex- Central West End

how law encourages redevelopment
How Law Encourages Redevelopment

Tax Incentives

  • Real Estate Tax Abatement
  • Historic Tax Credits

Bond and Loan Programs

  • Urban Enterprise Loan
  • LDC Commercial Loan
revitalization vs gentrification
Revitalization Vs. Gentrification

While urban revitalization in many ways improves certain areas, there are consequences. With these improvements come higher property taxes which, in most cases, many of the pre-revitalization residents cannot afford. This leads to a migration of population, the poorer citizens are left to find new places to live.

In many ways, this is a legal issue. The legal system has many tools to protect poorer citizens from the rising taxes that come from gentrification.

our solution
Our Solution

We propose redefining the requirements to be eligible for circuit breakers. Instead of basing it off of age, this tax credit should be based off of income. The primary problem with gentrification is it drives people with low income out of where they have lived, therefore solutions should be concerned with income as well.

In addition, we support the use of a variety of incentives to motivate private sector investment and revitalization.