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Ocean-scale modelling of Calanus finmarchicus. Douglas Speirs. Acknowledgments: Bill Gurney (Strathclyde) Mike Heath (FRS Aberdeen) Simon Wood (Glasgow University)

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ocean scale modelling of calanus finmarchicus

Ocean-scale modelling of Calanus finmarchicus

Douglas Speirs

Acknowledgments: Bill Gurney (Strathclyde)

Mike Heath (FRS Aberdeen)

Simon Wood (Glasgow University)

SOC, PML, SAHFOS, US-GLOBEC

calanus finmarchicus a marine copepod
Calanus finmarchicus – a marine copepod
  • Up to 90% of copepod biomass throughout the sub-arctic North Atlantic.
  • Important prey species for fish in both shelf and ocean ecosystems.
  • Extensive database from field surveys and laboratory experiments.

2 mm

the life cycle of calanus finmarchicus
The life-cycle of Calanus finmarchicus
  • Omnivorous, but feeds mainly on phytoplankton.
  • x1000 difference in body weight between eggs and adults.
  • Stage duration strongly dependent on temperature
  • Naupliar survival strongly dependent on food.
  • Reproduction & growth in upper layers (<200m).
  • Overwinters in a resting state at depths of 500-2000m.
the modelling challenge
The modelling challenge
  • The Challenge
  • Physiologically and spatially explicit demographic model
  • Ocean-basin scale – advection plus diffusion
  • Hypothesis tests require wide parameter exploration
  • Need exceptional computational efficiency
  • The Solution
  • Focus on Calanus (physical and biotic environment as given)
  • Separate computation of physical and biological components
  • Discrete-time approach ( 104 speed-up relative to Lagrangian ensemble)
the biological model
The Biological Model
  • Development rate a function of temperature and food
  • Diapause entry from end C5
  • Fixed fraction of each generation enter diapause
  • Diapause exit photoperiod cued
  • Surface mortality increases with biomass and temperature
time series test
Time Series Test

Gulf of Maine

OWS Mike

surface

C5-C6

diapause

C5

cpr test
CPR Test

observed

predicted

Jan./Feb.

May/Jun.

Jul./Aug.

domain connectivity
Domain Connectivity

Year 1

Year 3

Year 6

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Fractional diapause entry
  • Diapause entry late in C5
  • Photoperiod-cued diapause exit
  • Temperature-dependent mortality
  • Limited impact of transport
  • High domain connectivity
  • Ocean-scale population model feasible
  • Numerical efficiency is key
future prospects
Future Prospects
  • Tests on independent data sets
  • (UK-GLOBEC Irminger Sea data)
  • Automated parameter optimization
  • Hindcasting of decadal trends
  • Nested models for shelf regions
  • Coupled target species - ecosystem models
1958 1999 average surface abundance of c finmarchicus stage c5 and cvi

1996-onwards

1958-1999 average surface abundance of C. finmarchicus (stage C5 and CVI)

Calanus abundance map compiled from data supplied by SAHFOS to

NERCMarine Productivity project GR2/2749 and the EU-TASC project

geographical focus of marine productivity and other calanus centric programmes during the 1990 s
Geographical focus of Marine Productivity and other Calanus-centric programmes during the 1990’s..

Multi-national

programmes:

EU-ICOS

EU-TASC

National programmes:

UK, Norway, Germany, Denmark, Iceland, Canada, USA

NERC Marine

Productivity

Calanus abundance map compiled from data supplied by SAHFOS to

NERCMarine Productivity project GR2/2749 and the EU-TASC project

c5 s phytoplankton carbon at owsm
C5’s & phytoplankton carbon at OWSM
  • Diapause occurs at end of C5 stage
  • Fixed fraction of each generation