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Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Islam . The First Global Civilization. Origins. Mohammed (570-632 AD) founded Islam on the Arabian Peninsula after the Angel Gabriel told him to convert the polytheistic tribes to worship “Allah” “Allah” is the same god worshipped by the Christians and the Jews and it was taken well in Mecca

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islam

Islam

The First Global Civilization

origins
Origins

Mohammed (570-632 AD) founded Islam on the Arabian Peninsula after the Angel Gabriel told him to convert the polytheistic tribes to worship “Allah”

“Allah” is the same god worshipped by the Christians and the Jews and it was taken well in Mecca

He was later ran out of town to Medina (622 AD Hegira) There he gathered a large following and led them back to Mecca in a jihad “holy war”

Two years after taking Mecca he because ill and died after united the tribes in Islam

quran koran
Quran (Koran)

This sacred text is the words revealed to Mohammed from God

Mohammad memorized these words to taught them to his followers, that were later written down

There are Christian and Jewish references in it 114 chapters

It discusses forms of worship, conduct, treatment of women, etc., but the fundamental doctrine is, “There is no God but Allah; and Mohammed is a prophet.”

five pillars of islam
Five Pillars of Islam

Profession of Faith-”There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet.”

Prayer- 5 times a day facing toward Mecca

Charity- give to the poor and taxes to the Mosque (zagat)

Fasting- during Ramadan no eating or drinking during daylight hours

Pilgrimage- if physically able must take a trip to Mecca

arab empire
Arab Empire

At its height it was the larger than the Roman Empire and took only about 100 years to accomplish

caliphates
Caliphates

“Successor to Mohammed” caliph leaders took control after Mohammed’s death

The Sunnis followed the Umayyad Caliphate and a smaller group called the Shiite Muslims believed that only a relative of Mohammed could be a caliph

Umayyad caliph’s moved the capital to Damascus then when the Abbasids family took over it moved to Baghdad

They usually treated those they conquered with respect, but limited their right to hold public office; Christians and Jews were treated better since they worshiped the same God

golden age
Golden Age

Mathematics- Arabic Numerals were adopted by many cultures and helped advance Algebra and Geometry

Arts and crafts- Rugs, leather works, geometric designs, flowers and stars. Images of god and people were forbidden by Mohammed

Architecture- palaces, mosques, mosaics, calligraphy, and geometric designs

Medicine- discovered blood moved to and from the heart, diagnosed measles and smallpox to name a few

Invaders and the Crusades interrupted their progress

Saladin (1137-1193) is a hero for retaking Jerusalem to this day