Day 77: The Furnace of Civil War Baltimore Polytechnic Institute January 2, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
The Furnace of Civil War Objectives: Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run. Outline Union’s original military strategy and how Lincoln was forced to adjust it during the course of the War. Explain the critical importance of the failed Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in changing the Civil War from a limited war for the Union into a total war against slavery. AP Focus In the early stages of the war, Lincoln is disappointed with the performance of his generals, especially those who commanded the eastern Army of the Potomac. General George McClellan, who despite abundant resources at his disposal and an army larger than his foe’s, fails to capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, in 1862. The war provides both free blacks and runaway slaves the opportunity to take part in a personal crusade to destroy slavery. Over 180,000 black men serve in the Union army.
Chapter Focus Chapter Themes The Civil War, begun as a limited struggle over the Union, eventually became a total war to end slavery and transform the nation. After several years of seesaw struggle, the Union armies under Ulysses Grant finally wore down the Southern forces under Robert E. Lee and ended the Confederate bid for independence, as well as the institution of slavery.
Announcements Decades Chart 1860’s Due Friday Civil War Chart due Friday
Warm-Up Identify the long and short term causes of the American Civil War Describe the advantages and disadvantages of both the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War
Bull Run Ends the “90 Day War” Initially, the war was to be limited to roughly 90 days Union army drilled near D.C. in summer 1861 Bull Run-July 21, 1861 Many spectators Outcomes: Inflated South’s ego/overconfident, enlistees dropped, war was over Ended belief this would be a quick war
“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Army of the Potomac George McClellan-young, arrogant, perfectionist, loved by his men Lincoln said he had the slows and ordered him to advance Peninsula Campaign Attack on Richmond in spring of 1862 Lee attacked from June 26-July 2, 1862 McClellan retreated Outcomes: Lincoln began work on the Emancipation Total War
War Strategy 1. Coastal Blockade 2. Free the Slaves 3. Cut Confederacy in 2 4. Chop Confederacy-send troops through Georgia/Carolinas 5. Capture Richmond 6. Engage enemy’s main strength everywhere
The War at Sea Britain told shippers to stay away from US ports South reconditioned the Merrimack with old iron railroad rails and named it the Virginia The North sent the Monitor and fought to a tie with the Merrimack (Virginia)
The Pivotal Point: Antietam 2nd Battle of Bull Run-August 29-30, 1862 Lee defeated General John Pope Lee decided to enter Maryland Lincoln restored McClellan to active status McClellan discovered Lee’s battle plans on the ground Halted Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862 McClellan fired for not being bold Outcome: Ended any chance at diplomatic negotiations with Britain/France Springboard for the Emancipation-September 23, 1862-final on January 1
A Proclamation Without Emancipation Slaves in rebellious states will be “forever free” Outcomes: kept Border states loyal as no slaves were freed Southern slaves ran away to Union camps 13th amendment No negotiated settlement to end the war Lost seats in 1862 Congressional election enlistments decreased/desertions increased
Blacks Battle Bondage No African-Americans enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War War Department refused free Northern Blacks Union navy enrolled many as cooks, stewards, fireman As the numbers went down, black enlistees were accepted, even though many protested Opportunities to prove manhood, citizenship High casualties Confederacy enlisted slaves 1 month before the end
Lee’s Last Lunge at Gettysburg Lincoln replaced McClellan with General A.E. Burnside Burnside not fit for position Burnside’s Slaughter Pen on December 13, 1862-10,000 Northern casualties-Fredericksburg Lincoln appointed Joseph Hooker who lost at Chancellorsville, VA on May 2-4, 1863 The South really lost this battle-Stonewall was killed by his own troops Lincoln replaced Hooker with George G. Meade on June 28, 1863, 3 days before Gettysburg
Cont’d Seesaw battle that ended with the Pickett’s Charge failure-This broke the back of the Confederacy November 19, 1863-Gettysburg Address to dedicate the cemetery not important at the time
Wrap-up To what extent did McClellan prolong the American Civil War by not being bold enough in his decision making?
Homework • Continue Reading Chapter 21 • Work on Charts. • Quiz on Friday