Day 77: The Furnace of Civil War. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute January 2, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. The Furnace of Civil War. Objectives: Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
January 2, 2014
A/A.P. U.S. History
Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
Outline Union’s original military strategy and how Lincoln was forced to adjust it during the course of the War.
Explain the critical importance of the failed Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in changing the Civil War from a limited war for the Union into a total war against slavery.
In the early stages of the war, Lincoln is disappointed with the performance of his generals, especially those who commanded the eastern Army of the Potomac. General George McClellan, who despite abundant resources at his disposal and an army larger than his foe’s, fails to capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, in 1862.
The war provides both free blacks and runaway slaves the opportunity to take part in a personal crusade to destroy slavery. Over 180,000 black men serve in the Union army.
The Civil War, begun as a limited struggle over the Union, eventually became a total war to end slavery and transform the nation.
After several years of seesaw struggle, the Union armies under Ulysses Grant finally wore down the Southern forces under Robert E. Lee and ended the Confederate bid for independence, as well as the institution of slavery.
Decades Chart 1860’s Due Friday
Civil War Chart due Friday
Identify the long and short term causes of the American Civil War
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of both the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War
Initially, the war was to be limited to roughly 90 days
Union army drilled near D.C. in summer 1861
Bull Run-July 21, 1861
Inflated South’s ego/overconfident, enlistees dropped, war was over
Ended belief this would be a quick war
Army of the Potomac
George McClellan-young, arrogant, perfectionist, loved by his men
Lincoln said he had the slows and ordered him to advance
Attack on Richmond in spring of 1862
Lee attacked from June 26-July 2, 1862
Lincoln began work on the Emancipation
1. Coastal Blockade
2. Free the Slaves
3. Cut Confederacy in 2
4. Chop Confederacy-send troops through Georgia/Carolinas
5. Capture Richmond
6. Engage enemy’s main strength everywhere
Britain told shippers to stay away from US ports
South reconditioned the Merrimack with old iron railroad rails and named it the Virginia
The North sent the Monitor and fought to a tie with the Merrimack (Virginia)
2nd Battle of Bull Run-August 29-30, 1862
Lee defeated General John Pope
Lee decided to enter Maryland
Lincoln restored McClellan to active status
McClellan discovered Lee’s battle plans on the ground
Halted Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862
McClellan fired for not being bold
Ended any chance at diplomatic negotiations with Britain/France
Springboard for the Emancipation-September 23, 1862-final on January 1
Slaves in rebellious states will be “forever free”
kept Border states loyal as no slaves were freed
Southern slaves ran away to Union camps
No negotiated settlement to end the war
Lost seats in 1862 Congressional election
enlistments decreased/desertions increased
No African-Americans enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War
War Department refused free Northern Blacks
Union navy enrolled many as cooks, stewards, fireman
As the numbers went down, black enlistees were accepted, even though many protested
Opportunities to prove manhood, citizenship
Confederacy enlisted slaves 1 month before the end
Lincoln replaced McClellan with General A.E. Burnside
Burnside not fit for position
Burnside’s Slaughter Pen on December 13, 1862-10,000 Northern casualties-Fredericksburg
Lincoln appointed Joseph Hooker who lost at Chancellorsville, VA on May 2-4, 1863
The South really lost this battle-Stonewall was killed by his own troops
Lincoln replaced Hooker with George G. Meade on June 28, 1863, 3 days before Gettysburg
Seesaw battle that ended with the Pickett’s Charge failure-This broke the back of the Confederacy
November 19, 1863-Gettysburg Address to dedicate the cemetery
not important at the time
To what extent did McClellan prolong the American Civil War by not being bold enough in his decision making?