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Day 77: The Furnace of Civil War. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute January 2, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. The Furnace of Civil War. Objectives: Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

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day 77 the furnace of civil war

Day 77: The Furnace of Civil War

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

January 2, 2014

A/A.P. U.S. History

Mr. Green

the furnace of civil war
The Furnace of Civil War

Objectives:

Describe the consequences for both sides of the North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

Outline Union’s original military strategy and how Lincoln was forced to adjust it during the course of the War.

Explain the critical importance of the failed Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in changing the Civil War from a limited war for the Union into a total war against slavery.

AP Focus

In the early stages of the war, Lincoln is disappointed with the performance of his generals, especially those who commanded the eastern Army of the Potomac. General George McClellan, who despite abundant resources at his disposal and an army larger than his foe’s, fails to capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, in 1862.

The war provides both free blacks and runaway slaves the opportunity to take part in a personal crusade to destroy slavery. Over 180,000 black men serve in the Union army.

chapter focus
Chapter Focus

Chapter Themes

The Civil War, begun as a limited struggle over the Union, eventually became a total war to end slavery and transform the nation.

After several years of seesaw struggle, the Union armies under Ulysses Grant finally wore down the Southern forces under Robert E. Lee and ended the Confederate bid for independence, as well as the institution of slavery.

announcements
Announcements

Decades Chart 1860’s Due Friday

Civil War Chart due Friday

warm up
Warm-Up

Identify the long and short term causes of the American Civil War

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of both the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War

bull run ends the 90 day war
Bull Run Ends the “90 Day War”

Initially, the war was to be limited to roughly 90 days

Union army drilled near D.C. in summer 1861

Bull Run-July 21, 1861

Many spectators

Outcomes:

Inflated South’s ego/overconfident, enlistees dropped, war was over

Ended belief this would be a quick war

tardy george mcclellan and the peninsula campaign
“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign

Army of the Potomac

George McClellan-young, arrogant, perfectionist, loved by his men

Lincoln said he had the slows and ordered him to advance

Peninsula Campaign

Attack on Richmond in spring of 1862

Lee attacked from June 26-July 2, 1862

McClellan retreated

Outcomes:

Lincoln began work on the Emancipation

Total War

war strategy
War Strategy

1. Coastal Blockade

2. Free the Slaves

3. Cut Confederacy in 2

4. Chop Confederacy-send troops through Georgia/Carolinas

5. Capture Richmond

6. Engage enemy’s main strength everywhere

the war at sea
The War at Sea

Britain told shippers to stay away from US ports

South reconditioned the Merrimack with old iron railroad rails and named it the Virginia

The North sent the Monitor and fought to a tie with the Merrimack (Virginia)

the pivotal point antietam
The Pivotal Point: Antietam

2nd Battle of Bull Run-August 29-30, 1862

Lee defeated General John Pope

Lee decided to enter Maryland

Lincoln restored McClellan to active status

McClellan discovered Lee’s battle plans on the ground

Halted Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862

McClellan fired for not being bold

Outcome:

Ended any chance at diplomatic negotiations with Britain/France

Springboard for the Emancipation-September 23, 1862-final on January 1

a proclamation without emancipation
A Proclamation Without Emancipation

Slaves in rebellious states will be “forever free”

Outcomes:

kept Border states loyal as no slaves were freed

Southern slaves ran away to Union camps

13th amendment

No negotiated settlement to end the war

Lost seats in 1862 Congressional election

enlistments decreased/desertions increased

blacks battle bondage
Blacks Battle Bondage

No African-Americans enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War

War Department refused free Northern Blacks

Union navy enrolled many as cooks, stewards, fireman

As the numbers went down, black enlistees were accepted, even though many protested

Opportunities to prove manhood, citizenship

High casualties

Confederacy enlisted slaves 1 month before the end

lee s last lunge at gettysburg
Lee’s Last Lunge at Gettysburg

Lincoln replaced McClellan with General A.E. Burnside

Burnside not fit for position

Burnside’s Slaughter Pen on December 13, 1862-10,000 Northern casualties-Fredericksburg

Lincoln appointed Joseph Hooker who lost at Chancellorsville, VA on May 2-4, 1863

The South really lost this battle-Stonewall was killed by his own troops

Lincoln replaced Hooker with George G. Meade on June 28, 1863, 3 days before Gettysburg

cont d
Cont’d

Seesaw battle that ended with the Pickett’s Charge failure-This broke the back of the Confederacy

November 19, 1863-Gettysburg Address to dedicate the cemetery

not important at the time

wrap up
Wrap-up

To what extent did McClellan prolong the American Civil War by not being bold enough in his decision making?

homework
Homework
  • Continue Reading Chapter 21
  • Work on Charts.
  • Quiz on Friday