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Catalyst - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!. Catalyst. 2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!. 3. Draw a convex and concave lens. Magnets!.

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1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!


2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!

3. Draw a convex and concave lens.

A little intro
A little intro…



Properties of Magnets

  • A magnet is any material that exerts a magnetic force.

  • Magnets attract or repel other magnets.

  • One part of a magnet will always point north when allowed to swing freely


Magnetic Fields

  • The magnetic field is the area of magnetic force around a magnet

    • Allows magnets to interact without touching

  • Magnetic field lines are the invisible lines that map out the magnetic field of a magnet

    • Form complete loops, never cross

    • Always leave north and enter south

    • Distance between field lines indicate the strength of the magnet

      • Closer the lines, stronger the lines


Magnetic Domains

  • A magnetic domain is a region where the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in one direction

  • If the material is NOT magnetized, the magnetic domain points in random directions

  • If the material is considered a magnet, the magnetic domains are arranged in the same direction


Magnetic Materials

  • A ferromagnetic material is a material that shows strong magnetic properties

    • Behaves like a piece of iron

    • Iron, nickel, cobalt, samarium

  • Alloy magnets - magnets made from several different metals

    • Alnico - aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt

    • Platinum and cobalt

  • Ferrite - mixture of substances that contain ferromagnetic elements

    • Most commonly used today

    • Brittle material but inexpensive

Mythbusters magnets can magnets be used to climb a wall
Mythbusters: MagnetsCan magnets be used to climb a wall?


Making Magnets

  • Unmagnetized material can be magnetized by:

    • Placing an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material in a strong magnetic field

    • Rubbing the material with one pole of a magnet

  • Magnetizing a paper clip

    • Rub the paperclip in one direction along one pole of the magnet

    • Magnetic field of the magnet causes some domains in the paperclip to line up.


Destroying Magnets

  • Temporary magnet is a magnet made from a material that easily loses its magnetism

  • Permanent magnet is a magnet made from a material that keeps its magnetism for a long time

  • No magnet can last forever

  • Ways to demagnetize magnets

    • Drop it

    • Strike it

    • Heat it


Breaking Magnets

  • Break a magnet in half and you will have two smaller magnets

  • Each smaller magnet has its own north pole and south pole

  • Magnetic poles are lined up in one direction, which will remain even if the magnet is broken



Static electricity
Static Electricity

  • The buildup of charges on an object is called static electricity

  • Static discharge is the movement of charges from one object to another.

    • Think of this like shocking yourself when you drag your feet on the carpet and touch a door handle.

    • You feel the “shock.”

    • What you really experienced is static discharge.

    • Lightning is also a discharge of static electricity!

A message from bill nye
A Message from…Bill Nye


How are charges transferred
How are charges transferred?

3 ways:

  • Friction – rub 2 objects together

  • Conduction – direct contact (touching)

  • Induction – without touching

    • Van der Graaff is a GREAT example!

A message from our sponsor
A message from our sponsor


Electric current
Electric Current

  • Electric current is the continuous flow of electric charges (electrons) through a material.

  • Measured in amps (A)

  • Amps = amount of charge flowing past a given point each second.

  • AC = Alternating Current (runs in BOTH directions)

  • DC = Direct Current

    (runs in ONE direction)

Conductors and insulators
Conductors and Insulators

  • A conductor is a material through which charges can flow easily.

  • An insulator is a material through which charges cannot flow easily.


  • In order for electric current to exist, a circuit must first exist.

  • An electric circuit is a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow.


  • Potential energy is capacity to do work.

  • Batteries provide electrical potential energy

  • Voltage is the difference in electrical potential energy between two places.

    • This can also be called potential difference

    • Voltage causes current in an electric circuit

    • Basically, it is the amount of force pushing an electric current

    • Measured in Volts (V)


  • Resistance is the measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material.

  • Increase the resistance, decrease the current

  • Measured in ohms

  • Best Wire = SHORT, FAT, COLD!

  • Insulators = HIGH resistance

  • Conductors = LOW resistance

The maglev train can a magnet be used to make a train reach speeds of 2 000 mph
The Maglev TrainCan a magnet be used to make a train reach speeds of 2,000 mph?

Electric current magnetism
Electric Current & Magnetism

  • Wherever there is electricity, there is magnetism

  • An electric current produces a magnetic field

  • This relationship is called electromagnetism

Parts of an electromagnet
Parts of an Electromagnet

Wire to wrap around the core, preferably made of copper. We call this wire a SOLENOID!

Ferromagnetic material for a core, like a nail

Energy Source like a battery

Common Examples: credit cards, doorbells, radios, cranes, refrigerators, computer hard drives, VHS tapes, microwaves, etc.

Benefits of electromagnets
Benefits of Electromagnets

  • It can be turned on and off

  • It can have its direction reversed

  • We have control over the strength

How can we manipulate electromagnets
How can we manipulate Electromagnets?

  • Change the number of coils of the solenoid.

    • More coils = stronger

    • Less coils = weaker

  • Change the ferromagnetic core

    • More iron = stronger

    • Less iron = weaker

  • Change the source

    • Higher voltage = stronger

    • Lower voltage = weaker

Apply it
Apply it??

  • Kinda Creepy??

  • James Bond?

  • Boom??

Introduction and overview
Introduction and Overview


Series circuit
Series Circuit

  • Only ONE path.

  • Resistance is constant.

  • If one bulb goes out, the entire strand goes out.

  • The more lights you add, the dimmer the strand becomes.

  • The resistance is shared equally.

Series circuit1
Series Circuit

  • Benefit: safety switch

  • Drawback: a DC flow (direct current in ONE direction)

  • Examples: security systems, OLD Christmas lights

Parallel circuit
Parallel Circuit

  • Multiple paths for current to flow.

  • Resistance varies.

  • Light may shine brighter based on resistance.

  • Bulbs will stay lit even when a light burns out or breaks.

Parallel circuit1
Parallel Circuit

  • Benefits: very controllable; more dependable

  • Drawbacks: voltage and resistance vary, harder to turn off due to being an AC flow (alternating current)

  • Examples: wiring in your home, NEW Christmas lights

Side by side
Side by Side



Series and parallel circuits game
Series and Parallel Circuits Game