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# Catalyst - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!. Catalyst. 2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!. 3. Draw a convex and concave lens. Magnets!.

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1. How are frequency and wavelength related? They are INVERSELY related. As one goes UP, the other goes DOWN!

### Catalyst

2. What are the 3 primary colors of light? When combined, what do they create? RED, BLUE, GREEN. Create WHITE light!

3. Draw a convex and concave lens.

### Magnets!

• http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/kids/cartoons-tv-movies-kids/i-didnt-know-that-kids/idkt-magnets-kids/

• A magnet is any material that exerts a magnetic force.

• Magnets attract or repel other magnets.

• One part of a magnet will always point north when allowed to swing freely

• The magnetic field is the area of magnetic force around a magnet

• Allows magnets to interact without touching

• Magnetic field lines are the invisible lines that map out the magnetic field of a magnet

• Form complete loops, never cross

• Always leave north and enter south

• Distance between field lines indicate the strength of the magnet

• Closer the lines, stronger the lines

• A magnetic domain is a region where the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in one direction

• If the material is NOT magnetized, the magnetic domain points in random directions

• If the material is considered a magnet, the magnetic domains are arranged in the same direction

• A ferromagnetic material is a material that shows strong magnetic properties

• Behaves like a piece of iron

• Iron, nickel, cobalt, samarium

• Alloy magnets - magnets made from several different metals

• Alnico - aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt

• Platinum and cobalt

• Ferrite - mixture of substances that contain ferromagnetic elements

• Most commonly used today

• Brittle material but inexpensive

Mythbusters: MagnetsCan magnets be used to climb a wall?

• Unmagnetized material can be magnetized by:

• Placing an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material in a strong magnetic field

• Rubbing the material with one pole of a magnet

• Magnetizing a paper clip

• Rub the paperclip in one direction along one pole of the magnet

• Magnetic field of the magnet causes some domains in the paperclip to line up.

• Temporary magnet is a magnet made from a material that easily loses its magnetism

• Permanent magnet is a magnet made from a material that keeps its magnetism for a long time

• No magnet can last forever

• Ways to demagnetize magnets

• Drop it

• Strike it

• Heat it

• Break a magnet in half and you will have two smaller magnets

• Each smaller magnet has its own north pole and south pole

• Magnetic poles are lined up in one direction, which will remain even if the magnet is broken

S

N

### Electricity

• The buildup of charges on an object is called static electricity

• Static discharge is the movement of charges from one object to another.

• Think of this like shocking yourself when you drag your feet on the carpet and touch a door handle.

• You feel the “shock.”

• What you really experienced is static discharge.

• Lightning is also a discharge of static electricity!

3 ways:

• Friction – rub 2 objects together

• Conduction – direct contact (touching)

• Induction – without touching

• Van der Graaff is a GREAT example!

### Electric Currents

• Electric current is the continuous flow of electric charges (electrons) through a material.

• Measured in amps (A)

• Amps = amount of charge flowing past a given point each second.

• AC = Alternating Current (runs in BOTH directions)

• DC = Direct Current

(runs in ONE direction)

• A conductor is a material through which charges can flow easily.

• An insulator is a material through which charges cannot flow easily.

• In order for electric current to exist, a circuit must first exist.

• An electric circuit is a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow.

• Potential energy is capacity to do work.

• Batteries provide electrical potential energy

• Voltage is the difference in electrical potential energy between two places.

• This can also be called potential difference

• Voltage causes current in an electric circuit

• Basically, it is the amount of force pushing an electric current

• Measured in Volts (V)

• Resistance is the measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material.

• Increase the resistance, decrease the current

• Measured in ohms

• Best Wire = SHORT, FAT, COLD!

• Insulators = HIGH resistance

• Conductors = LOW resistance

### Electromagnetism

The Maglev TrainCan a magnet be used to make a train reach speeds of 2,000 mph?

• Wherever there is electricity, there is magnetism

• An electric current produces a magnetic field

• This relationship is called electromagnetism

Wire to wrap around the core, preferably made of copper. We call this wire a SOLENOID!

Ferromagnetic material for a core, like a nail

Energy Source like a battery

Common Examples: credit cards, doorbells, radios, cranes, refrigerators, computer hard drives, VHS tapes, microwaves, etc.

• It can be turned on and off

• It can have its direction reversed

• We have control over the strength

• Change the number of coils of the solenoid.

• More coils = stronger

• Less coils = weaker

• Change the ferromagnetic core

• More iron = stronger

• Less iron = weaker

• Change the source

• Higher voltage = stronger

• Lower voltage = weaker

• Kinda Creepy?? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/40183-mythbusters-electromagnetic-turkey-video.htm

• James Bond? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/32911-mythbusters-clips-electromagnetic-watch-video.htm

• Boom?? http://science.howstuffworks.com/7102-electromagnetic-pulse-bomb-video.htm

### Series and Parallel Circuits

• Only ONE path.

• Resistance is constant.

• If one bulb goes out, the entire strand goes out.

• The more lights you add, the dimmer the strand becomes.

• The resistance is shared equally.

• Benefit: safety switch

• Drawback: a DC flow (direct current in ONE direction)

• Examples: security systems, OLD Christmas lights

• Multiple paths for current to flow.

• Resistance varies.

• Light may shine brighter based on resistance.

• Bulbs will stay lit even when a light burns out or breaks.

• Benefits: very controllable; more dependable

• Drawbacks: voltage and resistance vary, harder to turn off due to being an AC flow (alternating current)

• Examples: wiring in your home, NEW Christmas lights

Series

Parallel

• http://scienceofeverydaylife.discoveryeducation.com/views/other.cfm?guidAssetId=D1507F6E-09C3-4E7B-B1E9-16708E402009