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Chapter # 4

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  1. Chapter # 4 Basic Concepts of Matter

  2. Matter Defined

  3. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. • Matter can be invisible. • Air is matter, but it cannot be seen. • Matter appears to be continuous and unbroken. • Matter is actually discontinuous. It is made up of tiny particles call atoms.

  4. Physical States of Matter

  5. SOLIDS Shape • Definite - does not change. It is independent of its container. Volume • Definite Particles • Particles are close together. Theycohere rigidly to each other. Compressibility • Very slight–less than liquidsand gases.

  6. A solid can be either crystalline or amorphous. Which one it is depends on the internal arrangement of the particles that constitute the solid.

  7. LIQUIDS Shape • Not definite - assumes the shape of its container. Volume • Definite Particles • Particles are close together. • Particles are held together by strong attractive forces. • They can move freely throughout the volume of the liquid. Compressibility • Very slight–greater than solids,less than gases.

  8. GASES Shape • No fixed shape. Volume • Indefinite. Particles • Particles are far apart compared to liquids and solids. • Particles move independently of each other.

  9. GASES Compressibility • The actual volume of the gas particles is small compared to the volume of space occupied by the gas. • Because of this a gas can be compressed into a very small volume or expanded almost indefinitely.

  10. ATTRACTIVE FORCES • Attractive forces are strongest in a solid. • These give a solid rigidity. Solid Liquid • Attractive forces are weaker in liquids than in solids. • They are sufficiently strong so that a liquid has a definite volume.

  11. ATTRACTIVE FORCES Gas • Attractive forces in a gas are extremely weak. • Particles in the gaseous state have enough energy to overcome the weak attractive forces that hold them together in liquids or solids. • Because of this the gas particles move almost independently of each other.

  12. Properties of Matter

  13. Properties of a Substance • A property is a characteristic of a substance. • Each substance has a set of properties that are characteristic of that substance and give it a unique identity.

  14. Physical Properties

  15. The inherent characteristics of a substance that are determined without changing its composition. • Examples: • taste • color • physical state • melting point • boiling point

  16. Chemical Properties

  17. Describe the ability of a substance to form new substances, either by reaction with other substances or by decomposition.

  18. Physical Changes • Changes in physical properties (such as size shape and density) or changes in the state of matter without an accompanying change in composition. • Examples: • tearing of paper • change of ice into water • change of water into steam • heating platinum wire • No new substances are formed.

  19. Chemical Changes

  20. In a chemical change new substances are formed that have different properties and composition from the original material.

  21. Decomposition of Water The composition and physical appearance of hydrogen and oxygen are different from water. The hydrogen explodes with a pop upon the addition of a burning splint. The oxygen causes the flame of a burning splint to intensify. Water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by passing electricity through it. They are both colorless gases. But the burning splint is extinguished when placed into the water sample.

  22. Chemical Equations

  23. products reactant yields Water decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen when electrolyzed.

  24. Chemical symbols can be used to express chemical reactions

  25. Substance A particular kind of matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties. Examples ammonia, water, and oxygen.

  26. Homogeneous Matter Matter that is uniform in appearance and with uniform properties throughout. Examples ice, soda, pure gold

  27. Heterogeneous Matter Matter with two or more physically distinct phases present. Examples ice and water, wood, blood

  28. Homogeneous Heterogeneous

  29. Phase A homogenous part of a system separated from other parts by physical boundaries. Examples In an ice water mixture ice is the solid phase and water is the liquid phase.

  30. Mixture Matter containing 2 or more substances that are present in variable amounts. Mixtures are variable in composition. They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

  31. Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances. It has one phase. Example Sugar and water. Before the sugar and water are mixed each is a separate phase. After mixing the sugar is evenly dispersed throughout the volume of the water.

  32. Heterogeneous Mixture A heterogeneous mixture consists of 2 or more phases. Example Sugar and fine white sand. The amount of sugar relative to sand can be varied. The sugar and sand each retain their own properties.

  33. Heterogeneous Mixture A heterogeneous mixture consists of 2 or more phases. Example • Iron (II) sulfide (FeS) is 63.5% Fe and 36.5% S by mass. • Mixing iron and sulfur in these proportions does not form iron (II) sulfide. Two phases are present: a sulfur phase and an iron phase. • If the mixture is heated strongly a chemical reaction occurs and iron (II) sulfide is formed. • FeS is a compound of iron and sulfur and has none of the properties of iron or sulfur.

  34. Heterogeneous Mixture of One Substance A pure substance can exist as different phases in a heterogeneous system. Example Ice floating in water consists of two phases and one substance. Ice is one phase, and water is the other phase. The substance in both cases is the same.

  35. System The body of matter under consideration. Examples In an ice water mixture ice is the solid phase and water is the liquid phase. The system is the ice and water together.

  36. Elements

  37. An element is a fundamental or elementary substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.

  38. All known substances on Earth and probably the universe are formed by combinations of more than 100 elements. • Each element has a number. • Beginning with hydrogen, as 1 the elements are numbered in order of increasing complexity.

  39. Most substances can be decomposed into two or more simpler substances. • Water can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen. • Table salt can be decomposed into sodium and chlorine. • An element cannot be decomposed into a simpler substance.