The Floor Was Warped Women Athletes and MSU Athletics in the Title IX Era Javier Pescador, MSU History Department Portia Vescio, MSU Archives
OVERVIEW • NEW STATUS OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY • WOMEN STRUGGLE FOR GENDER EQUALITY • ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AUTONOMY • EQUAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION • EQUAL ACCESS TO SPORTS PROGRAMS, TITLE IX-ERA • PROFESSIONAL SPORTS • TENNIS, BASKETBALL, SOCCER, GOLF
HISTORY ANTECEDENTS • 1963 EQUAL PAY ACT AND 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT INCLUDED WOMEN AS MINORITIES • WOMEN LIBERATION MOVEMENT • WOMEN ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION • WOMEN INCREASE PARTICIPATION IN THE LABOR MARKET • ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, DISCRETIONARY INCOME, LEISURE TIME.
BOSTON MARATHON 1967 BOSTON MARATHON, 1897, FIRST IN THE UNITED STATES, AFTER 1896 ATHENS OLYMPIC GAMES. APR.19, 1967 K.V. SWITZER REGISTERED FOR THE RACE. SYRACUSE UNIV. RACE JUDGE JOCK SEMPLE DQ HER SWITZER FINISHED THE RACE (4:20) DISPELLING MYTHS ABOUT FEMALE ATHLETES ENDURANCE/RESISTANCE.
KATHRINE SWITZER, JOCK SEMPLE AND THOMAS MILLER, BOSTON MARATHON, APR.19 1967. PHOTO BY HARRY TRASKER OF BOSTON TRAVLER. AP/WIDEWORLD PHOTO.
BOSTON INCIDENT LEGACY BOSTON MARATHON ADMITTED WOMEN 1972 RACE ON SWITZER RAN EIGHT TIMES IN THE BOSTON MARATHON SWITZER WON NEW YORK CITY MARATHON 1974. AVON INTERNATIONAL RUNNING CIRCUIT WOMEN ACCEPTED IN OLYMPIC GAMES MARATHON WOMEN’S RUNNING REVOLUTION
PROFESSIONAL TENNIS • BILLIE JEAN KING, 1960s-1970s • WORKING CLASS FAMILY IN CALIFORNIA. • TOURNAMENT PRIZES FOR WOMEN 10% PRIZES FOR MEN IN OPEN TENNIS • VIRGINIA SLIMS CIRCUIT FORMED 1971 • KING, FIRST PROF. FEM. ATHLETE EARNING +100,000 1971
BATTLE OF THE SEXES BOBBY RIGGS, WIMBLEDON CHAMPION 1939 “WOMEN INFERIOR TO MEN, THUS EQUAL PAY = OVERPAID”, RIGGS BETTER THAN ANY PRO WOMAN RIGGS CHALLENGED KING RIGGS DEFEATED MARGARET COURT “BATTLE OF THE SEXES” HOUSTON ASTRODOME, 30,000 FANS LARGEST ATT IN TENNIS EVER, 1973.
“BATTLE OF THE SEXES” IMPACT • BOXING MATCH STYLE ADDITIONAL $100,000 PURSE TO WINNER • MEDIA HYPE, RIGGS “OLD SCHOOL” vs KING’S “RADICAL FEMINIST” • TV SUCCESS, HIGHEST RATINGS FOR TENNIS BROADCASTING EVER • WOMEN TENNIS STANDARD FEATURE IN TV, CHRIS EVERT SUPERSTAR ATHLETE • EQUITY IN PAY UNDISPUTED • WHO WON?
TITLE IX ERA 1964 TITLE VII CIVIL RIGHTS ACT PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT BASED ON RACE, SEX, NATIONAL ORIGIN, OR RELIGION. 1966 COMMISSION FOR INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS FOR WOMEN CREATED 1966 FOUNDATION OF NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN
TITLE IX ERA 1971 UNITED STATES CONGRESS HEARINGS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1971 ASSOCIATION FOR INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS FOR WOMEN (AIAW) FOUNDATION 1972 EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT PASSES IN U.S. CONGRESS 1972 PRESIDENT NIXON SIGNS TITLE IX INTO LAW
TITLE IX-ERA • 1972 EDUCATIONAL AMENDMENTS ACT, SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION: “NO PERSON, ON THE BASIS OF SEX, SHOULD BE DENIED THE BENEFITS OF, OR BE DISCRIMINATED UNDER ANY EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FUNDING” • PROHIBITED IN SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND COLLEGE/UNIVERSITIES WITH FEDERAL FUNDING • 1973 BAN ON ATHLETIC SCHOLARSHIPS FOR WOMEN OUTLAWED
TITLE IX ERA 1975 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE, ISSUES GUIDELINES FOR TITLE IX IMPLEMENTATION 1978 TITLE IX MANDATORY COMPLIANCE FOR ALL HIGH SCHOOLS AND POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS. 1979 U.S. DEPT. HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE ADDS ATHLETICS INTO INTERPRETATION OF TITLE IX
TITLE IX • UNIVERSITIES AND SCHOOLS SHOULD OFFER THE SAME NUMBER OF SPORTS FOR WOMEN AND MEN • WOMEN’S AND MEN’S PROGRAMS WITH FUNDING PROPORTIONATE TO THE RATIO OF FEMALE/MALE ATHLETES • 1970’S RATIOS BIG TEN: $1/$1300, WASH STATE: 1% ATHLETIC BUDGET FOR WOMEN PROGRAMS
REACTIONS TO TITLE IX • NCAA STRONGEST OPPOSITION • FOOTBALL & BASKETBALL PROGRAMS, ATHLETIC DEPARTMENTS, STRONG OPPOSITION. • 1974-1979 LEGAL ATTEMPTS TO REVERSE OR NULLIFY TITLE IX APPLICATION TO COLLEGE SPORTS. • NCAA LEGAL ATTEMPTS FAILED, 1980 CHANGED STRATEGY • 1981-82 NCAA WOMEN NATIONAL TOURNAMENTS, 16% OF POSITIONS TO WOMEN. • 1984 AIAW DISAPPEARED
LEGAL REACTIONS • 1975 TOWER AMENDMENT, EXEMPTING REVENUE-SPORTS FROM TITLE IX • 1984 GROVE CITY COLLEGE vs BELL: NON-FEDERAL FUNDED PROGRAMS NOT INCLUDED IN TITLE IX • 1988 CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT: SCHOOLS ORDERED TO ELIMINATE GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN ALL THEIR PROGRAMS, INCLUDING ATHLETICS DEPARTMENTS
COLLEGE PARTICIPATION • 1992 34% COLLEGE ATHLETES: WOMEN • INTERCOLL. SPORTS 1970s 16,000, 1980s 160 000 WOMEN ATHLETES • H.S. WOMEN 1/3 ATHLETES • NOT A SINGLE SCHOOL HAS MET YET GENDER EQUITY STANDARDS • WOMEN COACHES DECREASED AS TEAM SPORTS TURNED COMPETITIVE BEFORE TITLE IX 90% FEM AFTER 50%
TITLE IX IMPACT • PERSISTENCE OF STRONG GENDER INEQUALITIES IN COLLEGE SPORTS, FAILURE TO END GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN COLLEGE SPORTS • FAILURE TO REVERSE TRADITIONAL PATTERNS OF DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT • SIGNIFICANT INCREASE OF WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE TEAM SPORTS • CREATION OF VENUES FOR NEW WOMEN’S PROFESSIONAL SPORTS
TITLE IX AND MSU SPORTS Karen Langeland, MSU Women’s Basketball Coach, 1976-2000
Conditions of Title IX Implementation • After the law was passed schools had to comply with at least one of the following requirements: • Schools must provide athletic opportunities that are proportionate to student enrollment • They must demonstrate a continual expansion of athletic opportunities for the underrepresented gender • A full and effective accommodation of the interest and ability of the underrepresented gender must be present
On July 21, 1976, MSU conducted a “Self-Evaluation as Required by Title IX of The Education Amendments of 1972”
1976 MSU Self-Evaluation Report Findings • They believed that changes were needed if they expected to make it work under Title IX • Committee concluded that facilities for both men’s and women’s sports are adequate and of comparable quality • They recommended that $130,000 be spent towards the women’s budget and improving their facilities • They also recommended that new positions be created to carry out Title IX • Director of Athletics, 3 Assistant Directors, and the Affirmative Action Committee
On April 15, 1978 the members of MSU women’s basketball team unanimously agreed to file a complaint against MSU Athletic department for “gross violations of the regulations of Title IX Education Amendments of 1972”
Early Women on Campus • Early agriculture curriculum not of interest to women • First women students entered 1870 • Main problem was housing women students
Early Women’s Athletics • 1888 – Women regular members of tennis club • Competed in field days in tennis from 1896 • Early women’s sports: fencing, pistol, field hockey, and swimming
Athletics in Curriculum • Women’s Course begins in 1896 – women admitted as regular students • Women’s Building (Morrill Hall) included a gymnasium so women could exercise • Calisthenics part of curriculum for women’s course
Women’s Athletic Association • Organized in 1924 by Helen Grimes, director of physical education • Oversaw competition between the classes in baseball, field hockey, soccer, basketball, volleyball, and rifle • By 1926 had a membership of 100 athletes • Co-eds had to follow certain rules • Sleep 8 hours per night; one cup of coffee per day, no smoking Source: M.S.C. Record, November 1926
Women’s sports ‘30s & ‘40s • Intramurals consisted of about 20 different sports • WAA joined the Athletic Federation of College Women • Women’s program expands around WWII with decreased male population
Women’s Sports ‘50s & ‘60s • In 1962 Carol Harding (MSU) was hired as the first full-time Director of Women’s Intramural Sports in the Big Ten Conference • Women’s intramural teams competed on a state and even national levels • Money was issue – fundraising consisted of bake sales and garage sales • Officiating done by classes, when possible
Title IX Suit • April 25, 1978 – Women’s basketball team members filed Title IX Complaint • Facilities – competition, training, and practice • Scheduling • Travel • Equipment, supplied and uniforms • Coach’s pay and job status • Academic assistance • Athletic scholarships
Scholarship comparison Women Men In 1976, 14 players received full scholarships – approx $31,000 • In 1976, first athletic scholarship money awarded - $3000 for basketball team • Tuition and Board in 1976 • In State - $2400 • Out of State - $3500
Coaching comparison Women’s varsity team has one coach, assisted by j-v coach Women’s coaches are graduate students who must teach and pursue degree in addition to coaching Men’s varsity team have head coach plus two assistants. Men’s j-v has own coach. Men’s coaches do not have to teach
12 points of the suit • Safety • No physician in attendance at games • Practiced played on a dirty floor with • Fixtures protruding from it • Health 4. Lower per diem food allowance 5. Gym was too cold and regulation of temperature was not possible
12 points, cont. • Fairness • Only one pair of shoes per player • Practiced & played on warped gym floor • Provided transportation to away games by car or bus, sometimes up to 11 hours • No provision of laundry for uniforms • Not provided housing or food during winter holiday practice
12 points, cont. • Fairness, cont. 11. Provided no training table 12. Forced to sleep 4 players to a room, 2 per bed on trips to away games
Nell Jackson’s Assessment 1975 Unable to provide adequate practice uniforms Unable to provide sufficient equipment Teams forced to stay in 2nd rate hotels due to budget constraints Large groups forced to travel in station wagons and cars instead of buses Inadequate practice space for basketball and volleyball teams when seasons overlap
MSU’s Preliminary Response Playing conditions in Men’s IM would be improved An Affirmative Action Committee appointed to review problems and suggest solutions Investigate student manager program for women’s teams “Under any compliance review, more dollars will be required for women’s athletics. The question is one of magnitude.”
Specific Immediate Outcomes • MSU did work on conditions in Men’s IM • Women provided housing during holidays • MSU agreed to pay women’s team equal per diem to men’s team • Coach Karen Langeland unaffected by suit • Continued to coach until 2000 when voluntarily stepped down
Legacy of Title IX 1980 – Women given Varsity letters for first time 2001 Men Gymnastics team is cut – men protest 2002 – Over 300 former women athletes awarded Varsity letters In 2002, men’s athletics received 67% of the athletics budget and 72% of the recruiting budget
CLASS ASSIGNMENT • USING THE EXAMPLES OF WNBA , NCAA AND PROFESSIONAL TENNIS PLAYERS, COMPARE THE TREATMENT WOMEN ATHLETES RECEIVE FROM THE MEDIA WITH THE COVERAGE GIVEN TO THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS IN THE NCAA, NBA AND PRO-TENNIS RESPECTIVELY. PROVIDE CONCRETE EXAMPLES TO SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENT.