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Positive Youth Development & Life Skill Development. 4-H 101: Return to the Basics CES Staff Development Series Tuesday, January 10, 2006, 9:00-12:00 noon IP Video Presentation by Steve McKinley [email protected]; 765-494-8435. 4-H 101 Series. Effectively Utilizing Volunteers (10/4)

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Positive Youth Development & Life Skill Development

4-H 101: Return to the Basics

CES Staff Development Series

Tuesday, January 10, 2006, 9:00-12:00 noon

IP Video Presentation

by Steve McKinley

[email protected]; 765-494-8435


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4-H 101 Series

  • Effectively Utilizing Volunteers (10/4)

  • Starting and Maintaining 4-H Clubs (11/15)

  • Expanding 4-H Opportunities (12/13)

  • Characteristics of Positive Youth Development & Life Skill Development (1/10)

  • 4-H Purpose, History, and Structure (2/14)

  • Conflict Management Techniques (3/14)


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Program Information…

  • Disconnected? Contact the AgIT Help Desk at 765-494-8333

  • Provide feedback to: Steve at 765-494-8435, or [email protected]



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Objectives:

  • Discuss characteristics of youth development.

  • Define the 8 essential elements and 4 concepts of positive youth development.

  • Identify life skills developed by 4-H members.

  • Explain the components of the Experiential Learning Model.

  • Discuss methods to help youth develop life skills.

  • Identify characteristics of successful youth and adult partnerships.


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Objective 1

Discuss characteristics of youth development.


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Youth Development Approach

  • Focus on positive outcomes desired for youth, not on negative outcomes to prevent.

  • Provide programs that are available to all young people.

  • Youth are seen as “central actors in their own development.”

  • Develop the whole person – not just a single characteristic or problem.


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Youth Development Approach

  • Mastery of competencies for productive adult life.

  • Not something done TO youth, but results from programming WITH youth.

  • Guided by caring, knowledgeable adults – dependent on family and other adults in community.

  • Programs offered in safe, nurturing, healthy environments.


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To master skills young people need…

  • Safety and structure

  • Sense of belonging and membership

  • Closeness and several good relationships

  • Experience of gaining competence and mastering skills


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To master skills young people need…

  • Independence and control over some part of their lives

  • Self-awareness and ability and opportunities to act on that understanding

  • Sense of self-worth and ability and opportunities to contribute


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Positive Youth Development

  • Is an intentional process

  • Promotes positive outcomes for young people

  • Provides opportunities, relationships and the support to fully participate. 

  • Takes place in families, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods and communities.

    • Source: National 4-H Leadership Trust


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4-H Youth Development

  • Non-formal, youth education program

  • Housed in the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

  • Part of land grant university system

  • Access to most current knowledge and research

  • Located in each county in the nation


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4-H Program Strengths

  • Nationally-recognized

  • Strong local, state, and national infrastructure

  • Outreach opportunities support community efforts

  • Research-based curriculum

  • Professionals trained in adult education and youth programming

  • Record of successful partnerships with youth-serving organizations


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Approaches to 4-H Youth Development

Focus: Risks & Risk Factors

Target: Social Norms

Goal: Fewer Problems

Focus: Skills & Knowledge

Focus: Developmental Needs

Target: Individual Learners

Target: Opportunities for Youth

Goal: Competency in knowledge or skill

Goal: Maturity & Potential


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Community, Family, Peers,

School, Work, Leisure

Contextual Influences

Competencies

1.

Health/Physical

3. Cognitive/Creative

2.

Personal/Social

4. Vocational/Citizenship

Needs

1.

Physiological

6. Independence/Control

2.

Safety and Structure

over one’s life

3.

Belon

ging/Membership

7. Self Worth/Contribution

4.

Closeness/Relationships

8. Capacity to enjoy life

5. Competency/Mastery

Cognitive Changes

Psychosocial Changes

Biological & Physical Changes

Understanding the Different Approaches

EDUCATION FOCUS

YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

Developed by Cathann A. Kress, Ph.D.


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Objective 2

Define the 8 essential elements and 4 concepts of positive youth development.



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I pledge my head to clearer thinking…

  • Youth need to know that they are able to influence people and events through decision-making and action.

  • These youth are…Confident, Assertive, Responsible, Self-disciplined, Leaders

INDEPENDENCE


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I pledge my heart to greater loyalty…

  • Current research emphasizes importance for youth to have opportunities for long-term consistent relationships with adults other than parents.

  • Belonging may be the single most powerful positive ingredient we can add to the lives of youth.

  • These youth are…Loving, Friendly, Social, Cooperative, Trusting

BELONGING


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I pledge my hands to larger service…

  • Youth need to feel their lives have meaning and purpose.

  • By participating in 4-H community service and citizenship activities, youth connect to communities and learn to give back to others.

  • These youth are…Caring, Sharing, Loyal, Empathetic, Supportive

GENEROSITY


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I pledge my health to better living…

  • In order to develop self-confidence youth need to feel and believe they are capable and they must experience success at solving problems and meeting challenges.

  • These youth are…Achieving, Successful, Creative, Problem-solvers, Motivated, Persistent, Competent

MASTERY


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Objective 3

Identify life skills developed by 4-H members.


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Life Skill Development

  • Life Skills – competencies that help people function well in their environments.

  • Learned in sequential steps related to their age and developmental stage.

  • Acquired through “learn-by-doing” activities.


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Targeting Life Skills Model

Source: Pat Hendricks, Iowa State






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Objective 4

Explain the components of the Experiential Learning Model


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Experiential Learning Model

  • Process for youth to learn through a carefully planned experience followed by leader-led discussion questions

  • Basis for 4-H activity manuals


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"Learn by Doing"

  • We remember:

    • 10% of what we read

    • 20% of what we hear

    • 30% of what we see

    • 50% of what we see and hear

    • 70% of what we see, hear and discuss

    • 90% of what we see, hear, discuss and practice

  • You can tell or show members how to do something, but the actual experience of doing it themselves is the best way to reinforce learning


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90%

70%

50%

30%

10%



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Experience… “Just do it!”

  • Action on the part of the learner

  • Leader provides guidance, but is not directive

  • Goal is for youth to “experience” the activity to develop life skills

  • Opportunities for practice


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Share… “What happened?”

  • Ask the group some of the following questions…

    • What did you do?

    • What happened?

    • What did it feel like to do this?

    • What was most difficult? Easiest?


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Process… “What’s important?”

  • Ask questions to focus on thinking about the process…

    • How was the experience conducted?

    • How was the activity performed?

    • What steps did you complete during this activity?

    • What problems did you encounter? How did you overcome them?


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Generalize… “So what?”

  • Focus questions on individual experiences…

    • What did you learn or discover?

    • How does what you learned relate to other things you have been doing?

    • What skill did you practice? What similar experiences have you had with learning this skill?


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Apply… “Now what?”

  • Emphasize how this activity helped the members learn subject matter skills and practice life skills.

    • How does what you learned relate to other parts of your life?

    • How can you use what you learned?

    • How might this experience change the way you will approach a similar task in the future?


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Debriefing the Activity

  • Debriefing allows members to complete their learning from the activity.

  • Leaders should be well-prepared for the debriefing.

  • Build in adequate time for members to reflect on their experiences.

  • Listen to youth carefully.

  • Most important outcome: members demonstrate new knowledge gain & practice targeted life skill.


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Objective 5

Discuss methods to help youth develop life skills.


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Methods used in 4-H to help youth develop life skills

  • 4-H projects

  • Activity manuals

  • Demonstrations/Public Speaking

  • Judging events

  • Skill-a-thons

  • Project workshops

  • Educational trips

  • Resume building

  • Camp Counselors


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Skill-a-thon

  • Method to involve 4-H members and parents

  • Challenging, non-competitive, learn-by-doing activities

  • Series of mini learning stations with assistants at each station

  • Participants rotate from station to station to perform the given task


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Skill-a-thon

  • All team members test their knowledge and ability before assistant provides hints

  • Can involve several project groups at one time on the program

  • Entire club can be actively involved at one time

  • Provides recognition to projects and leaders


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Planning a Skill-a-thon

  • Determine subject matter for stations.

  • Create realistic tasks to complete at each station.

  • Delegate responsibility for securing adequate equipment and supplies.

  • Identify an assistant for each station (youth or adult) familiar with the topic.

  • Identify volunteer to divide group into teams of 2-4 and to assign each team to a workstation.

  • Advertise event to members and parents.


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Conducting a Skill-a-thon

  • Set up stations

  • Divide group into teams by age

  • Allow teams to experience activities

  • Listen to answers and presentations

  • Ask questions to help build on presentation

  • Praise efforts

  • Review major points and appropriate solutions

  • Evaluate the skill-a-thon


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Objective 6

Identify characteristics of successful youth and adult partnerships.


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Youth-Adult Partnerships

  • Provides opportunities for youth and adults to work together

  • Excellent learning opportunity for both groups

  • Adults work with youth as equals in the partnership (not do activities to or for youth)


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Youth-Adult Partnerships

  • Benefits of youth involvement:

    • Youth recruit other youth more effectively than adults

    • Youth have a fresh perspective

    • Youth have access to information

    • Youth gain self-esteem and new skills.

    • Communities gain new source of potential leaders


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Youth-Adult Partnerships

  • Benefits of youth involvement:

    • New role models are formed.

    • Negative youth activities are reduced.

    • Adults learn they don’t need to be responsible for everything.

    • Adults better understand youth and become re-energized.

    • Youth better understand adults and the roles they play.


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Tips to develop effective YAP’s

  • Don't expect more from youth than you would from an adult. Youth have busy schedules and deadlines too.

  • Treat youth as individuals. Don't ask one youth to represent all youth.

  • Encourage youth & adults to work as equal partners with balanced voices.

  • Respect youth as having a significant contribution to make and do not view them only as program beneficiaries.


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Tips to develop effective YAP’s

  • Don't interrupt. Allow youth the chance to finish their thoughts.

  • Help the group feel comfortable with each other and overcome the initial anxiety.

  • Outline expectations and responsibilities of youth and adult members. Establish a set of shared values, such as respect, equality, openness, listening, and trust.

  • Work toward outcomes that address real issues and needs of youth & community.


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Tips to develop effective YAP’s

  • Allow youth and adults to learn together and explore beneficial new program ideas.

  • Take joint responsibility for decision-making, identifying issues, planning, and implementing plans.

  • Provide challenging and relevant roles for participation in the organization.

  • Evaluate results and give positive reinforcement. Allow time to reflect on the work accomplished.


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Overcoming Barriers to Youth Service

  • Discuss organizational “mindset” so that adults and youth working together is a productive and enjoyable experience for both groups

  • Advise adults about “dos and don’ts” on how to work with youth, and youth on how to work with adults

  • Hold open discussion about stereotypes that adults and youth have of each other

  • Lead exercises to practice “shared power”


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Overcoming Barriers to Youth Service

  • Train various age groups appropriately

  • Provide clear definition of roles and responsibilities for both adults and youth

  • Include youth in meaningful decision-making processes

  • Be sensitive to logistics such as the availability of transportation, suitable scheduling, and snacks for young volunteers who come after school

    Source: Independent Sector


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Youth as Volunteers

  • 44% of adults volunteer and 2/3 of these began volunteering when they were young.

  • Adults who began volunteering as youth are twice as likely to volunteer as those who did not volunteer when they were younger.

  • High school volunteering recently reached the highest levels in the past 50 years.  

  • In every income and age group, those who volunteered as youth give and volunteer more than those who did not.

  • Those who volunteered as youth and whose parents volunteered became the most generous adults in giving time.

    Source: “Youth Service America”, Independent Sector


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This I Believe…

  • The 4-H boy and girl are more important than the 4-H projects.

  • 4-H is not trying to replace the home, the church, and the school, only to supplement them.

  • 4-H’ers are their own best exhibit.

  • No 4-H award is worth sacrificing the reputation of a 4-H member or leader.

  • Competition is a natural human trait and should be recognized as such in 4-H club work. It should be given no more emphasis than other fundamentals in 4-H.


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This I Believe…

  • Learning how to do the project is more important than the project itself.

  • A blue ribbon 4-H’er with a red ribbon pig is more desirable than a red ribbon 4-H’er with a blue ribbon pig.

  • To “learn by doing” is fundamental in any sound educational program and is characteristic of the 4-H program.

  • Generally speaking, there is more than one good way of doing most things.

  • Every 4-H member needs to be noticed, to be important, to achieve, and to be praised.

  • Our job is to teach 4-H members HOW to think, NOT what to think.

Source: Utah 4-H


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Resources

  • Hendricks, Pat. 1998. “Targeting Life Skills Model.” http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/lifeskills/previewwheel.html.

  • Independent Sector. http://www.independentsector.org/programs/research/engagingyouth.html.

  • Kress, Cathann. “Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development.” National 4-H Headquarters. http://www.national4-hheadquarters.gov/library/elements.ppt.


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Resources

  • USDA/Army Youth Development Project. 2003. “4-H 101, The Basics of Starting 4-H Clubs.” http://www.national4-hheadquarters.gov/library/4h_docs.htm.

  • Utah 4-H website. “This I Believe…” http://utah4h.org/vol-handbook/handouts.htm.

  • Woessner, Lisa. “Youth and Adult Partnerships.” University of Illinois 4-H. http://www.4-h.uiuc.edu/opps/articles003.html.



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Thanks for joining us!

Next 4-H 101 Program:

“4-H Purpose, History, and Structure”

Tuesday, February 14, 2006,

9:30-11:30 a.m.


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