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Day Six: Supporting Your Speech: Materials & more. by Yana Cornish Hamilton College. Agenda:. Supporting Materials (Ch. 7) Types of supporting materials (Ch. 8) Activity. Homework: . Read chapters 7 & 8 Do suggested activity p. 165 Select a video speech and provide its analysis.

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  • Supporting Materials (Ch. 7)
  • Types of supporting materials (Ch. 8)
  • Activity
  • Read chapters 7 & 8
  • Do suggested activity p. 165
  • Select a video speech and provide its analysis.
  • Perfect your introduction and conclusion
  • Continue selecting supporting materials for your first speech
  • Continue putting together biographical information
supporting material
Supporting Material
  • Ideas, opinions, and information that help to explain a presentation’s main idea and purpose.
  • The best presenters use a mix of many different kinds of supporting material
what materials to use
What Materials to Use?
  • Facts
  • Illustrations (verbal or visual)
  • Descriptions & explanations
  • Definitions
  • Analogies
  • Statistics
  • Opinions
  • Examples
  • Stories
  • Testimonies
what materials to use1
What Materials to Use?
  • Fact - verifiable observation, experience, or event known to be true
    • Most effective when the audience can accept them as true
  • Illustrations (verbal or visual):
    • Brief illustration – a short example (a sentence or two)
    • Extended illustration – a detailed example
what materials to use2
What Materials to Use?
  • Descriptions & explanations:
    • Description – detailed mental images of people, concepts, or things.
    • Explanation – a statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists.
    • They offer causes, effects, characteristics, and background information.
  • Definition– explanations or clarifications of a word’s meaning.
what materials to use3
What Materials to Use?
  • Analogy – a comparison of unfamiliar concepts or objects with familiar ones.
    • can be alike or different
  • Examples:
    • Alike: America is like a quilt- many patches, pieces, colors, and sizes, all woven and held together by a common thread.
    • Different: If a copilot must be qualified to fly a plane, then a U.S. Vice President should be qualified to govern the country.
what materials to use4
What Materials to Use?
  • Statistics – systematically collected and numerically classified information.

-only factual if analyzed correctly

  • Opinion– a statement made by an individual
  • Examples- provides a reference to a specific case or instance in order to make an idea understandable.
    • can be facts, brief descriptions, or detailed stories
what materials to use5
What Materials to Use?
  • Stories-accounts or reports about things that have happened.
    • Can have a great impact on the audience
    • Use stories to gain attention, create a mood, or reinforce an important idea.
what materials to use6
What Materials to Use?
  • Testimony- statements or opinions that someone has said or written in magazines, speeches, on the radio, books, etc.
    • Believability depends on the credentials of the speaker or writer, so use testimony from famous people and experts to enhance your credibility.
    • Expert testimony – an opinion offered by someone who is an authority on the subject.
    • Lay testimony – an opinion offered by a nonexpert who has firsthand experience.
how to choose good materials
How to choose good materials:
  • Magnitude – bigger is better!
  • Proximity – the most relevant to the listeners (‘closest to home’)
  • Concreteness – use concrete examples and statistics
  • Variety – use a mix!
  • Humor – audience will appreciate it!
  • Suitability of material – to you, your speech, your audience, and occasion.
search for supporting materials
Search for Supporting materials
  • Start with your own knowledge
  • Internet/WWW:
    • To supplement library sources, not replace them
    • Directories
    • Search engines
      • Alta Vista
      • Google
      • Yahoo!
      • Lycos
      • Dogpile
supporting materials
Supporting materials:
  • Library resources:
    • Books
    • Periodicals
    • Full-text Databases
    • Government documents
    • Reference resources (maps, encyclopedias, etc.)
    • Special services (interlibrary loan)
supporting materials1
Supporting materials:
  • Interviews:
    • Needs to be set up
    • Requires planning
    • Can provide very useful information
  • Special groups/organizations
important questions for interviews
Important Questions for Interviews
  • Why am I conducting this interview? What do I hope to learn?
  • What do I know about the person I’m interviewing?
  • What do I want or need to know for my presentation?
  • In what order should I ask the questions?
evaluating your sources
Evaluating Your Sources
  • Is the source identifiable and credible?
    • Are the author and publisher identified and reputable?
  • Example: Which is more respected and reputable?
    • The National Inquirer or
    • The Wall Street Journal
  • Is the source biased?
    • Is the information slanted in one direction so much that it isn’t fair?
evaluating your sources1
Evaluating Your Sources
  • Is the information recent?
    • When was the information collected and published? Use magazines, web sources, etc. for current events.
  • Is the information consistent?
    • Is the information similar to other information on the same subject?
  • Are the statistics valid?
    • Use sophisticated research methods to provide valid statistics and information.
questions for determining validity
Questions for Determining Validity
  • Who collected and analyzed the data?
  • Is the researcher a well-respected expert?
  • How was the information collected and analyzed?
  • Who is reporting the statistics: the researcher or a reporter?
  • Are the statistics believable?
record your sources
Record Your Sources
  • Make a bibliography card, recording all relevant information for each source you intend to use.
  • Make copies of the material you will use
  • Save material you find online by printing it, emailing it to yourself, or saving it to a disk.
record your sources1
Record Your Sources
  • Read the copies you have made carefully
  • Take careful notes on information related to your paper topic.
  • Distinguish exact quotations from summaries and record all page numbers.
cite your sources
Cite Your Sources
  • In writing (bibliography) and/or orally during your speech

In Writing (bibliography):

  • Must include author, title, publisher, and date
  • There should be no question which words are yours and which words belong to other people.
  • Not necessary for facts regarded as common knowledge (available in many sources), such as chronological events, author’s birth date...
cite your sources cont
Cite Your Sources (cont.)
  • If you are not sure, cite your sources!
  • Cite all supporting material unless it is common knowledge.
  • Cite someone else’s ideas and opinions, even if you restate it in your own words.
citing your sources orally
Citing Your Sources Orally
  • Provide sufficient information to allow others to find your source, don’t read the whole citation.
  • Provide the name of the person, saying a word or two about their credentials, and mentioning the source (or title) of the information.
citing directly or paraphrasing

In a 1988 article published by English Journal, Dr. James Stalker described the absurdity of adopting an official language for the United States. He wrote: “We cannot…”


In a 1988 article published by English Journal, Dr. James Stalker noted that in a Democracy like ours, we cannot pass laws against the use of other languages.

Citing: Directly or Paraphrasing
supporting materials2
Supporting materials:
  • How to develop a bibliography:
    • In alphabetical order at the end of the speech outline
    • Author’s name
    • Title of the article (book)
    • Title of the book/website
    • Date of publication (date when accessed if it is a web site)
    • Publisher (books only)
outline review see pp 32 33
Outline Review (see pp. 32-33):
  • Topic
  • General and Specific Purposes: at the end of the speech…
  • Central idea
  • Description:
    • Introduction (write your statement)
    • Body (structure only)
    • Conclusion (write your statement)
  • Read chapters 7 & 8
  • Do suggested activity p. 165
  • Select a video speech and provide its analysis.
  • Perfect your introduction and conclusion
  • Continue selecting supporting materials for your first speech
  • Continue putting together biographical information