Tissues. Tissue divided into four subtypes Epithelial tissue: covers and protects body surfaces, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood (secretions, excretions, and absorptions), and forms many glands.
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Tissue divided into four subtypes
Epithelial tissue: covers and protects body surfaces, lines
body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and
out of the blood (secretions, excretions, and absorptions),
and forms many glands.
Connective tissue: specialized to support he body and its parts,
to connect and hold them together, to transport substances
through the body, and to protect it form foreign invaders.
Muscle tissue: produces movement; moves the body and its
Nervous tissue: most complex tissue in the body; specializes
in communication between the various parts of the body and
in integration of their activities
Subdivided into two types
Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium: cover the body
and some of its parts, and some line the serous cavities
(pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal ), the blood and lymphatic
vessels, and the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary
Glandularepithelium: grouped in solid cords or specializes
follicles that form the secretory units of endocrine and
Functions of epithelial tissue
Protection: most important function; relatively tough and
impermeable covering of the skin-protects body from
mechanical and chemical injury and from invading bacteria
and other disease-causing microorganisms
Sensory: specialized for sensory functions found in the skin,
nose, eye, and ear.
Secretion: includes hormones, mucus, digestive juices, sweat
Absorption: lining of the gut, respiratory tract allows
for the absorption of nutrients from the gut and the exchange
of respiratory gases between air in the lungs and the blood
Excretion: lining of kidney tubules makes the excretion and
concentration of excretory products of excretory products
in the urine possible.
Generalizations about epithelial tissue
Attaches to an underlying layer of connective tissue by means
of a thin non-cellular layer of adhesive, permeable material
called the basement membrane
Contains no blood vessels (avasular), oxygen and nutrients
Diffuse from capillaries in the underlying connective tissue
Through the permeable basement to reach living cells
Endure considerable wear and tear, frequently go through
cell division in many locations, new cells replace old or
destroyed cells in the skin or in the lining of gut or respiratory
Classifications of tissue named by number of layers and shape of
cells that make up the cell
Shape of membranous epithelial tissue cells may be used for
Four cell shapes
Squamouscells: are flat and plate like.
Cuboidalcells: are cube-shaped.
Columnarcells: higher than they are wide and appear narrow
Pseudostratifiedcolumnar: only one layer of oddly shaped
columnar cells . Touches the basement membrane, tops of
some do not fully extend to the surface of the membrane.
Some of the nuclei are near the top and some near the bottom.
Classifications based on layers of cells
Simpleepithelium: cells in a single layers
Stratifiedepithelium: cells are layered one on another
Flat and platelike
This picture shows the lining of an artery, one location for this type of tissue.
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands.
These cells line your respiratory and digestive tracts.
Ciliated columnar epithelial cells are found mainly in the tracheal and bronchial regions of the pulmonary system and also in the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system.