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Including English Language Learners in Social Studies Bárbara C. Cruz & Stephen J. Thornton University of South Florida FCSS, October 2008
Some U.S. statistics… Between the 1990-1991 and the 2000-2001 school years, the overall national school population grew 12%; the ELL population grew 105% Today 1 in 9 K-12 public school students is an ELL; in 20 years it is estimated to be 1 in 4 Between13% and 30% of teachers have received ELL training (although almost 50% have ELLs in their classrooms) Less than 3% of teachers have earned a degree in ESL
Stages of Second Language Acquisition Preproduction: ELLs are able to comprehend more English than they can produce; focus is on developing everyday “survival” English Early Production: ELLs are taking more risks with English, often resulting in grammar and pronunciation errors; important to create a safe, low-anxiety classroom environment Speech Emergence: ELLs typically have 1-3 years exposure to English; awareness of English language structure is growing; may have a receptive understanding of academic English Intermediate Fluency: ELLs exhibit almost native-like like fluency in everyday social English, but not in academic English; still difficult to understand and verbalize cognitively demanding, abstract concepts
ELL Principles • Vocabulary and Language Skills Development Examples: linking written & oral lang, listening centers, storytelling • Making Text in English more Comprehensible Examples: modified text, graphic organizers, visuals • Promoting Interactive Learning between ELLs and English-speaking Students Examples: class discussion, cooperative learning, peer teaching, group projects • Accommodating a Variety of Learning Styles Examples: total physical response, kinesthetic learning, hands-on, visual, auditory
Lewis & Clark: Visual Aids, Cartography, & Critical Thinking • Overhead transparency of LA Purchase: • http://www.civics-online.org/library/formatted/images/lpurchase.html • http://encarta.msn.com/media_461517363/Louisiana_Purchase.html • http://www.sos.louisiana.gov/purchase/purchase-index.htm
Louisiana Purchase Ask students to consider: • How many modern-day states are part of the Louisiana Purchase? • What sorts of terrain did Lewis and Clark encounter along the Missouri? • How was it different from the settled parts of the U.S. east of the Mississippi River? (Hint: look at natural vegetation and precipitation maps). • What natural resources did the U.S. gain from the Louisiana Purchase?
Pre-Production Find the Alleghany Mountains. Where is the Mississippi River? Which areas were settled before 1760? Early Production Do you think Lewis and Clark will complete their trip safely? Which is longer: the Mississippi or the Illinois River? List all the states shown on the map. Speech Emergence What kind of people would Lewis and Clark likely find on their trip? Why does it say “Spanish” south of Georgia? If you were on the Lewis and Clark expedition, what would you take? Intermediate Fluency What do you think Lewis and Clark will find on their journey? How long do you think their trip will take? Do you think it was right for Pres. Jefferson to ask Lewis and Clark to go on such a dangerous journey?
Source: Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov
Historical Photograph Analysis http://www.archives.gov
“Women Learn ‘War Work’” Volusia County Vocational School. Daytona Beach Credit: FCIT http://fcit.usf.edu/florida Dora Miles and Dorothy Johnson Long Beach Plant, Douglas Aircraft Credit: Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov
Hurricane of 1921, Tampa Bay Children sitting on telephone poles that were knocked down on Fifth Avenue in Ybor City. Photo credit: Courtesy of the Special Collections Department, University of South Florida.http://fcit.usf.edu/florida
People walking on the street beside some of the damage of the hurricane of 1921 to trolley tracks on Bayshore Blvd in Tampa. Photo credit: Courtesy of the Special Collections Department, University of South Florida.http://fcit.usf.edu/florida
Some of the damage of the hurricane of 1921 to trolley tracks on Bayshore Boulevard in Tampa. Photo credit: Courtesy of the Special Collections Department, University of South Florida.http://fcit.usf.edu/florida
“She talks about what people can do, not what they can’t.” John F. Fanselow, Professor Emeritus at Teachers College, Columbia University, speaking about Maxine Greene, noted educator and philosopher