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Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 477 Terrorism Dr. Abu-Lughod, Re

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Hate Crimes: Acts of Terrorism?Hate crimes defined? Law enforcement issue rather than a national security oneSeparation of hate crimes from terrorismThe relativity of Crime?Political violence: against a particular race, religion, etc may fit both hate crimes and T. Reactionaries Vs. Radicals

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slide1
Department of Criminal Justice

California State University - Bakersfield

CRJU 477

Terrorism

Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali

The Nature of the Beast

slide2
Hate Crimes: Acts of Terrorism?
  • Hate crimes defined?
  • Law enforcement issue rather than a national security one
  • Separation of hate crimes from terrorism
  • The relativity of Crime?
  • Political violence: against a particular race, religion, etc… may fit both hate crimes and T
slide3
Reactionaries Vs. Radicals
  • Finding the distinction between right wing and left wing
  • Reactionary: far and fringe rightist ideologies. The NOSTALGIC perception
  • Radical: far and fringe leftist ideologies. The idealistic
  • Example of National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) guerilla movement 1970s. Leftist fighting alongside Marxist Movement for the Liberation of Angola against Portuguese colonialists
slide4
LEFT TO RIGHT
  • Fringe Left: Marxist ideology: the justification of political violence for liberation from oppression…it’s a just fight
  • Liberalism: defined depending on societies within which they exist and function. People’s rights movement, gay rights, etc…
  • The Moderate Center. The balancing rod between the liberals and conservative. Finding consensus
  • Conservatism: also depending on the society within which it exists and function. Edmund Burke considered the father of modern conservatism. Questioning radical change
  • Far Right: lack of engagement in political violence and more participation in democratic processes . Adherence to social order and traditional values
  • Fringe Right: ethno-national and religious superiority. Justification of terrorist violence
slide5
Defining Terrorism and sources of T
  • Extremism as a precursor to T…justification of behavior
  • Please read examples on page 42

Characteristics of Violent Extremists

  • Intolerance
  • Moral Absolutes
  • Broad Conclusions
  • New Language and Conspiratorial Beliefs
slide6
The World of Extremists and the Conspiracy Theory

Sep 11th 2001 and who was behind the attack

Please read example on page 44. Blaming the Jews

Some consensus but no unanimity

Guerilla Warfare Vs. T

Other definitions of T on page 46-47 (please read)

Illegal force, political motives, attacks against “soft” civilians, etc…

slide7
The American Definition
  • U.S. DOD: “the unlawful use of, or threatened use, of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce and intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives”
  • FBI: “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives”
slide8
Types of T:
  • State T
  • Dissident T
  • Religious T
  • Criminal T
  • International T

Perspectives on T:

  • Participants in a terrorist environment
  • The terrorist
  • The supporter
  • The victim
  • The target
  • The onlooker
  • Modern mass media
  • The analyst
slide9
T or freedom fighting?
  • Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) in Israel
  • Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka
  • Extremism or “mainstreamism”?
  • Opposition v. acceptance
  • Rationalization and justifiable behavior
slide10
Ideologies and Ideals
  • Evaluating and analyzing behavior
  • Belief systems
  • Future predictions and policy implications

Anarchism, Marxism & Fascism

  • A: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon “property is theft”
  • Mikhail Bakunin, Sergei Nechayev and Petr Kropotkin
slide11
M: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
  • Lenin (Russia), Mao Zedong (China), Monh (Vietnam) and Castro (Cuba) and their revolutionaries doctrines
  • F: rightists ideological counterpoint to Marxism and anarchism peaked prior to WWII
  • Italian F (Benito Mussolini), German F (Adolf Hitler), Spanish F (Francisco Franco)
slide12
The Just War Doctrine
  • The Hague Conventions
  • Jus in bello, and jus ad bellum

The Political Violence Matrix

The dilemma of defining Combatants,

Non-combatants, and the Use of Force

  • Combatants: conventional and non-conventional adversaries engaging in armed conflict and irregular guerilla fighting
  • Non-Combatants: civilians who have no connection to military or other security forces
slide13
Indiscriminate and Discriminate Forces
  • I.F.: application of force without attempting to limit the level of force or the degree of destruction of the target. More acceptable when used in a warfare environment
  • D.F.: more surgical use of limited force. Morally acceptable when applied against specific targets with the intention to limit so-called collateral damage
slide14
Conclusion
  • The nature of the Beast
  • Definitional T
  • Fascism (dictator), Marxism (socialist, classless), and Anarchism (against state)
  • Cause of T
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