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Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules. Paul De Boeck K.U.Leuven. Examples. Political openness and economic openness Life satisfaction and cost of living Research performance and innovation intensity Socioeconomic status and intolerance. Multi-level governance structure.

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Examples
Examples

  • Political openness and economic openness

  • Life satisfaction and cost of living

  • Research performance and innovation intensity

  • Socioeconomic status and intolerance



Link concept operationalisation
Link concept-operationalisation

Political

openness

Participation

Competition

Transparance

Accountability

Rule of law

Interfaces

various aspects

combine subindicies


Implicit theory
Implicit theory

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

test scoreglobal index


Measurement
“Measurement”

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

assignment rulee.g., sum, first component score



Alternative
Alternative

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

Can I explain?Which model can explain?


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

The data are not meant as a measurement of something, but as to be explained.

For example, responses to inventory items,how can they be explained?Do the correlations between items stem from overlap in the information used to respond?Which information is it?Why not extract the information directly?What is the origin of the information?

When explained with a quantitative theory, then measurement is a by-product


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

1. Not everything is worth being measured or can be measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept


Assignment of numbers
Assignment of numbers measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept

  • number finding: counts, percentages

  • number asking: ratings

  • number construction: apply a rule on original numbers in order to obtain a derived number


Measurement1
“Measurement” measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept

X1 numerical obs

X2 numerical obs

X3numerical obs

X4numerical obs

the thing to be measured

assignment rulee.g., sum, first component score


Measurement2
Measurement measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept

  • A quantity

  • Increasing or decreasing doesn’t change the nature

  • Addition from two sources is possible

  • Splitting is possible, e.g. in halves


Questions
Questions measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept

  • Why are you interested in the link between the two concepts?Why do you want to measure?Because I want to test a theorydata for the theoryWhy aren’t you interested in the data?and try to explain the data?theory for the data

  • Aren’t your numerical variables of sufficient interest to keep them as they are?


Examples1
Examples measured, often the data are more interesting than the concept

  • Woodworth Personal Schedule 1917 to measure psychological adaptation

    Before, lists of questions were used and one would listen to the responses

  • Hirsch index: the maximum obtained by selecting a number of publications with each at least the same number of citations, e.g., 15 articles with 15 or more citations


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules



Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • The underlying theory is the simple implicit theory are not theory-independent

  • Alternatives- canalization: one behavior has developed into a the dominant one and excludes the other behaviors- behavior competition: the strongest takes it all- negative feedback: showing a behavior makes it less likely to occur next- drop-out: only occasionally it is affected by


Dynamic theories
Dynamic theories are not theory-independent


Dynamic theories1
Dynamic theories are not theory-independent


Dynamic theories2
Dynamic theories are not theory-independent


Reliability
Reliability are not theory-independent

Repetition over

  • Situations

  • Behaviors

  • Time


Questions1
Questions are not theory-independent

  • Do you have the simple theory for your data that they are a direct and linear reflection of the concept?

  • What is your theory of stability?Stability over?


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

3. Always reflect on which type of covariation is meant when speaking about the link between two concepts


The case of shame and guilt
The case of shame and guilt speaking about the link between two concepts

  • Covariation over situationsguilt vs shame is one of two dimensions

  • Covariation over personsguilt & shame define a dimension together with fear and anger

  • Covariation over culturesguilt and shame define their own common dimension


Negative emotions
Negative emotions speaking about the link between two concepts

  • Fear and anger are positively correlated over persons

  • Fear and anger cannot co-occur because they rely on opposite action tendencies (flight and fight)


Guilt
Guilt speaking about the link between two concepts

  • Experienced norm violation

  • Self-reproach

  • Tendency to restitute

    Unidimensional in the sense of individual-differences, and they each contribute separately to the probability of feeling guilty


Questions2
Questions speaking about the link between two concepts

  • Are you interested in individual differences?Are you ready to find traits?

  • Components of?Meaning – semanticIndividual differencesSituational differencesTime differencesProbability of occurence



Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

Hypothesis don’t need to be sequential steps:

link between concept A and B

  • Step 1: construct a measurement for A, B

  • Step 2: test reliability measurements

  • Step 3: test validity measurements

  • Step 4: test hypothesis


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement don’t need to be sequential steps


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement reliability don’t need to be sequential steps


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

validity measurement don’t need to be sequential steps


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

measurement don’t need to be sequential steps hypothesis testing


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

validity measurement reliability don’t need to be sequential steps hypothesis testing


Questions3
Questions don’t need to be sequential steps

  • Do you want to construct a test?

  • ?Meaning – semanticIndividual differencesSituational differencesTime differencesProbability of occurence


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

5. Always do a PCA don’t need to be sequential steps


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules


Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules


Questions4
Questions row elements

  • Show me your PCA before we continue, especially when complex methods are going to be used, such as SEMs



Seven possibly controversial but hopefully useful rules

  • Common concern: the data“what is the scale level?”“are parametric statistics permissible?”

  • Scale level only matters when - numbers are taken for an index of something else, how does the index relate to the “something else”?

  • Transformations are interesting when a simpler and better structure can be found


Representations of relations
Representations of relations the data

Example

P(Xpi=1)/(1-P(Xpi=1)) = p / i

  • p and i are on a ratio scale,as far as they represent odds ratios


Questions5
Questions the data

  • Suppose you forget about the scale level and you find an interesting relationship

  • Do you want to generalize over other number assignment procedures?

  • How meaningful are the numerical variables as they are?



Problems
Problems descriptive summaries

  • The global index depends on the components, and hence, on the definition.

  • Often definitions are arbitrary or they are mainly semantic

  • Perhaps the relationships of the index follow from the relationships of the components


Questions6
Questions descriptive summaries

  • What is the definition?

  • What do others say?

  • Aren’t you interested in the components?