some review some new including clinical aspects of bones and joints n.
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Some Review, Some New; Including Clinical Aspects of Bones and Joints …….. . Fill Ins…. We stressed the importance of the active form of Vitamin D ( CalcitrioL ) in bone formation . Please remember that other vitamins are instrumental in proper bone formation and maintanance .

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fill ins
Fill Ins…..

We stressed the importance of the active form of Vitamin D ( CalcitrioL) in bone formation .

Please remember that other vitamins are instrumental in proper bone formation and maintanance.

They are vitamins A and C

clarifications
Clarifications…..

What do we call the cranial joints? Sutures or Synostoses?

This depends on your age!!

Sutures come first. The cranial bones are filled with fibrous connections.

Then, by middle age the connections ossify and the bones are fuse ….Synostoses.

the fontanels
The Fontanels
  • These are the soft spots of an infant’s skull. By AGE 2 are gone. They allow for passage of baby through birth canal.
  • There are four fontanels:
  • 1)anterior –between frontal and parietal bones,2) Posterior- between occipital and parietal bones,3) the anterolateral – are paired structures on each side of skull and located superior to the sphenoid bone. Lastly ,4) the posterolateral( mastoid) fontanels are posterior to the temporal bone.
cranialsynostosis
Cranialsynostosis
  • Craniosynostosis is usually classified by which of the six sutures (fontanels) close early and the resulting head shape.
  • Children with craniosynostosis have an abnormally shaped head, because when a suture closes early, the skull is forced to grow at a different rate ……..such as SLOW BRAIN GROW because of the SMALLER HEAD MICRENCEPHALY
slide11

Those at higher risk for developing rickets include:*Breast-fed infants whose mothers are not exposed to sunlight *Breast-fed infants who are not exposed to sunlight*Individuals not consuming fortified milk, such as those who are lactose intolerant

gout disease of royalty
Gout: Disease of Royalty

Gout is a kind of arthritis ( INFLAMMATION)

  • It can cause an attack of sudden burning pain, stiffness, and swelling in a joint, initially in big toe joint (usually). Can be sudden onset.

.

  • What causes gout? Uric Acid Crystal Accumulation in the joint. THIS IS NOT NORMAL!!!
  • We excrete urea as our nitrogenouse waste, not UA crystals!!
  • Break down of Purines ( remember DNA & RNA? Foods rich in these –Liver, brains, ..organ meats…Alcoholics get this.
  • However , this can be hereditary too and those people get it from ordinary protein diet.
  • Remedy: NSAIDS, Drink a lot of water. Other drugs
diplasia of the hip
Diplasia of the Hip
  • This is a misalignment of the acetabulofemor joint.
  • Development of OSTEOARTHRITIS w/ Pain and Immobility
  • Hip dysplasia is considered to be a multifactorial condition. That means that several factors are involved in causing the condition to manifest. Congenital factors often exist.
  • Treatment: Braces, surgery, Hip Replacement.
bones processes and fossa
BONES: Processes and Fossa
  • Bones have projections or bumps and depressions. WE call bumps PROCESSES and the depressions FOSSA .
  • You will see later how these bumps and depressions are used for muscles and nerves to “attach or go through”. “ FORM IS FOR FUNCTION”
  • The processes and fossa differ and thus are named accordingly.
processes types
Processes : Types

Processes:Any Bony Projection

  • Condyle- a rounded articulating process
  • Epicondyle- a projection located above a condyle
  • Tuberosity- a large rounded or irregular process
  • Tubercle
  • Trocanter- an very large, often blunt process
  • Spine- A sharp, slender process
  • Hamulus- a hook-shaped process
  • Line- a Very slight ridge of the bone
  • Crest- A prominent ridge of the bone
  • Facet- a smooth flattened articulating surface
fossae types
Fossae: Types

Fossae: Any depression, and bony openings

  • Foramen:a hole in the bone through which nerves and blood vessels pass
  • Meatus or canal- a tunal-like passage through a bone
  • Sinus- a cavity within a bone
  • Sulcus or groove- a furrow within a bone’s surface
  • Fovea- a shallow depression