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SKC - A Global Company. SKC is a GLOBAL company Distributors in over 50 countries We work as a single company. SKC Ltd UK 01258 480188 www.skcltd.com. 1500 BC EBERS PAPYRUS, EGYPTIAN PHYSICIANS RECOGNIZE TOXIC EFFECTS

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skc a global company
SKC - A Global Company

SKC is a GLOBAL company

Distributors in over 50 countries

We work as a single company

SKC Ltd

UK

01258 480188

www.skcltd.com

slide2
1500 BC EBERS PAPYRUS, EGYPTIAN PHYSICIANS RECOGNIZE TOXIC EFFECTS

4TH C BC HIPPOCRATES, BEGINNING OF SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION, ASBESTOS DISEASE RECOGNISED

82 BC LEX CORNELIA MAKES POISONING ILLEGAL

54 AD PLINY THE ELDER, MERCURY REFINERS USE BLADDERS OVER FACE TO PROTECT AGAINST DUST

1473 ELLENBORG, RECOGNIZED CHRONIC LEAD AND MERCURY POISONING

1493-1541 PHILIPUS PARACELSUS, CORRELATED "MINERS DISEASES" WITH METAL FUME

1500s CANARIES INTO THE MINES

1519-1589 CATHERINE DE MEDICI, HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

1556 AGRICOLA, RECOGNIZED "ASTHMA" AMONG MINERS

1700 RAMAZZINI, RECOGNIZED OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND PRESCRIBED CURES

1775 PERCIVAL POTT, RECOGNIZED SCROTAL CANCER AS A RESULT OF CLEANING CHIMNEYS

1833 FACTORY ACT, ENGLAND LIMITS HOURS OF CHILD LABOUR

1839 GERMANY BANS CHILD LABOUR IN DANGEROUS OCCUPATIONS

1864 ENGLAND'S FACTORY ACT PROVIDES FOR INSPECTION OF FACTORIES

1877 FACTORY INSPECTION IN USA

1884 K.B. LEHMANN, STUDIED TOXIC EFFECTS OF GASES ON ANIMALS

1905 BENZO (a) PYRENE IDENTIFIED AS CARCINOGEN, FIRST CHEMICAL CARCINOGEN

1910 FIRST NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL DISEASES

Time Line

ingestion uptake routes
CONTAMINATIONIngestion (uptake) Routes

IN THE AIR

SPILL

BREATHING

SURFACE

SKIN

air sampling
Air Sampling
  • OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE
  • The factory/workplace
  • Indoor air quality

OUR ENVIRONMENT

Inner cities

Agriculture

Pesticides - herbicides, - fungicides

  • INDUSTRIAL
  • Incineration/Waste
  • Stacks and Ducts
  • Power generation
air sample
Air Sample
  • Air is passed through a tube, filter or other collecting media, at a set air flowrate.
  • The amount collected is checked by the laboratory and reported usually
  • in mg/m3 or ppm.
air sample1
Air Sample
  • To have a valid sample with MEANINGFUL results you will need:
  • to select a relevant sample method
  • to choose the right media
  • to set the correct flow rate
  • to sample for an appropriate time
  • to analyse the sample accordingly
  • + COMMON SENSE!
sampling
SAMPLING
  • WHO
  • WHERE
  • WHEN
  • WHAT
  • HOW

METHOD

personal v static
Personal V Static

30 cm Hemisphere around the nose and mouth

ALL exposure limits are based on

PERSONAL SAMPLES

And MUST be taken in the Breathing Zone

types of contaminant
AerosolTypes of Contaminant

Dust

Fume

Smoke

SOLID

choosing an air sampling method
Choosing an Air Sampling Method
  • EH 40/2005 - UK guidelines lists M.D.H.S. methods
  • Websites: N.I.O.S.H, O.S.H.A., H.S.E.
  • Supplier information
  • Laboratory advice
sources of methods
Sources of Methods

UK Methods

- FREE at:

www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/index.htm - MDHS 42/2

- Purchase

HSE books 01787 881165

- Subscription

www.hsedirect.com

- SKC Factfiles online

www.skcinc.com/hse/HSE.asp

USA methods

www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/toc/toc_chemsamp.html

methods – ID121/125G.

www.cdc.gov/niosh/database.html-methods - 7300/7301/7303.

slide12
Health and Safety Executive

Guidelines appear in MDHS 14/3

For Nickel MDHS

42/2 and 91

inhalable dust
Inhalable Dust
  • Affects the whole of the respiratory system
  • 100 micron at 50% cut
  • Blanket level of…

10 mg/m3

Ni = 0.1 or 0.5.mg/m3.

Per EH40/2005.

inhalable dust sampling the i o m sampler
Inhalable Dust samplingThe I.O.M. sampler
  • Inhalable sampler
  • Cassette system
  • All collected dust is measured
  • Easily handled
  • No contact with filter
  • Mimics inhalation by a person
  • Multi fraction sampling with foam inserts

IOM cassette

Transport clip

IOM sampler

Front Cassette Filter Support O ring Body

cover front grid

iom cassette
1.5000IOM Cassette
  • IOM Cassette.
  • Cassette and filter are pre and post weighed as a single unit
sample train
Sample Train

Is made up of :

  • Pump
  • Connecting tube
  • Sampler
  • This should be calibrated to a flow of 2 L/min

SAMPLER

CONNECTING

TUBE

PUMP

calibration
Calibration

To Calibrate

  • Switch on pump
  • Connect sampler to calibrator
  • Ensure no leaks
  • Adjust flow to recommended level
  • Switch off pump
sample train calibration
Sample train calibration
  • Calibration in the case of air sampling with active systems, is defined as:
  • The setting of the air flow through the filter medium, to the recommended level for the method being used.
  • Flow should be checked before and after EACH sample. (UK MDHS method series)
electronic calibration
Electronic Calibration
  • Easy to use
  • Accurate
  • Quick results
  • Not open to misinterpretation
  • More expensive option
rotameters
Rotameters
  • Cheap option
  • Simple to use
  • Accuracy can vary
  • Open to misreading
  • Come as ‘ball’ or ‘float’ reading
  • FSD
surface and skin monitoring
Surface and Skin Monitoring
  • Monitoring the redness, hydration and epidermal waterloss of skin can be a useful measure of exposure
  • Monitor the surfaces where exposure occurs for cleanliness
  • Niosh 9102.
ventilation systems
Ventilation Systems
  • Regular checks should be made that your ventilation system is working correctly
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