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RFID in the Library Context: Integration, Interoperability, and Business Environment. Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University Library Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/

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rfid in the library context integration interoperability and business environment

RFID in the Library Context: Integration, Interoperability, and Business Environment

Marshall Breeding

Director for Innovative Technology and Research

Vanderbilt University Library

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://www.librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding

77th IFLA General Conference and Assembly 

17 Aug 2011

summary
Summary
  • Many aspects of technology supporting the automation of libraries are changing rapidly. Service-oriented architecture, Web-based computing, increased integration of social networking concepts, as well as cloud computing such as software-as-a-service characterize this emerging landscape. Products and services making use of RFID technology have to exist in an automation ecosystem increasingly reshaped by these technologies. Breeding will present a view of how RFID and related technologies fit into this evolving environment, some of the challenges involved such as the need for more modern protocols for interoperability, and some of the opportunities enabled for new efficiencies and innovations. He will also review some of the changes in the global RFID business landscape and comment on its implications for libraries that depend on their products and services.
library technology guides
Library Technology Guides

www.librarytechnology.org

library technology guides4
Library Technology Guides
  • Includes lib-web-cats directory of libraries
  • Tracks library automation products used by libraries: LMS, Discovery, Link resolvers, etc.
  • Recently added section on RFID and related products
  • Interest in collecting data on how these products have been implemented globally
lj automation marketplace
LJ Automation Marketplace

Annual Industry report published in Library Journal:

  • 2010: The New Frontier
  • 2009: Investing in the Future
  • 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil
  • 2007: An industry redefined
  • 2006: Reshuffling the deck
  • 2005: Gradual evolution
  • 2004: Migration down, innovation up
  • 2003: The competition heats up
  • 2002: Capturing the migrating customer
the new frontier
The New Frontier…
  • new phase of competition following a period of research and development that aimed to provide alternatives to libraries, both in back-end automation and end user discovery. A variety of new solutions have emerged, often representing quite different conceptual models. In a continued trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately improve the experiences of their users, especially via discovery products.
phase of realignment in lms platforms
Phase of realignment in LMS platforms
  • Strong need to realign library automation with current library realities
  • Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no longer in step with library priorities.
  • Need systems that allow libraries to allocate personnel in proper proportion to collection
  • Separate automation platforms for print and electronic have not proven successful
key context technologies in transition
Key Context: Technologies in transition
    • XML / Web services / Service-oriented Architecture
    • Local computing shifting to cloud platforms
      • SaaS / private cloud / public cloud
  • Beyond Web 2.0:
    • Integration of social computing into core infrastructure
  • Full spectrum of devices
      • full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile
revised library automation priorities
Revised library automation priorities
  • Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital + Social
  • Print-focusedmodels not adequate for modern libraries
  • Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with additional modules to handle electronic content, social engagement, resource sharing, and self-service
  • New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS
  • Working toward a new model of library automation
    • Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications
    • Comprehensive Resource Management

“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

working toward more open systems
Working toward more Open Systems
  • Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies
  • Open source
  • Open API’s
  • Demand for Interoperability
  • Libraries need to do more with their data
  • Ability to improve customer experience
the shrinking lms
The Shrinking LMS
  • The Library Management System no longer stands as the single library automation product that provides comprehensive support for all aspects of library operations.
  • Many libraries putting much less emphasis on LMS
  • Manages workflows related to physical materials
  • Investments in electronic content increasing
  • Management of e-content handled outside of the ILS
legacy lms model

Policies

$$$

Funds

BIB

Vendor

Holding / Items

CircTransact

User

Legacy LMS Model

Public Interfaces:

Staff Interfaces:

Interfaces

Circulation

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

OnlineCatalog

BusinessLogic

DataStores

breaking out of the mold
Academic and Research libraries especially struggle with how to deal with managing increasing proportions of licensed electronic content

Public Libraries seeking technologies that facilitate engagement with their users: social, interactive, dynamic

LMS geared toward print materials

New generation of products emerging to address new and emerging library realities

Breaking out of the mold
interoperability protocols relevant to rfid
Standard Protocols for access to item and patron data

SIP

NCIP

Standard Protocols for access to bibliographic data

OAI-PMH

ILS-DI (Integrated Library System – Discovery Interface)

Standard Protocols for access to other data and functionality

API’s specific to automation platform

Generalized set of API’s

Interoperability Protocols relevant to RFID
sip system interchange protocol
SIP: System Interchange Protocol
  • Initially created by 3M, used widely throughout industry for self-service and other tasks needing access to patron and item data and status in library automation systems.
  • 3M: “Permission is hereby granted to utilize this protocol in hardware and software products but no permission is granted to create derivative works or otherwise modify the protocol” (from ver 2.0 document)
  • Version 1: 1993
  • Version 2: 2006
  • Version 3: Draft currently under review
niso circulation interchange protocol
NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol
  • Official Standard designed to operate in the same space as SIP
    • Z39.83
  • Part 1 approved October 2002; Part 2 Approved Nov 2008
  • Not widely adopted for self-service
  • More widely used in resource sharing: interlibrary loan and direct consortial borrowing
  • Open source NCIP Toolkit developed and released by the eXtensible Catalog project
    • http://code.google.com/p/xcncip2toolkit/
application programming interfaces
Automation products cannot exist in isolated silos

APIs provide a set of tools used by programmers to:

Extend Functionality

Connect external systems

Extract or synchronize data

Proprietary API’s common in LMS space

Moving toward open API’s and Web Services

Application Programming Interfaces
benefits of apis to libraries
Extensibility

Interoperability

Allows the LMS to connect with other automation components

Create a matrix of interconnected systems rather than isolated silos with redundant data and functionality

LMS maturity means similar levels of functionality

LMS products increasingly differentiated by extent and quality of APIs and interoperability support

Benefits of APIs to Libraries
legacy ils model api

Policies

$$$

Funds

BIB

Vendor

Holding / Items

CircTransact

User

Legacy ILS Model / API

`

Public Interfaces:

Staff Interfaces:

Interfaces

Application Programming Interfaces

Circulation

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

OnlineCatalog

BusinessLogic

DataStores

legacy ils model protocol

$$$

Funds

Policies

BIB

Vendor

Holding / Items

CircTransact

User

Legacy ILS Model / protocol

Public Interfaces:

Staff Interfaces:

InterlibraryLoan

System

Application Programming Interfaces

Protocols: SIP2 NCIPZ39.50OAI-PMH

Circulation

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

OnlineCatalog

Self-Check

legacy ils model external api

$$$

Funds

Policies

BIB

Vendor

Holding / Items

CircTransact

User

Legacy ILS Model / External API

Public Interfaces:

Staff Interfaces:

ExternalSystems & Services

Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services

Circulation

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

OnlineCatalog

Flexible Interoperability

Protocols: SIP2 NCIPZ39.50OAI-PMH

lms as middleware
LMS provides strategic core of automation

Less involved with end-user contact

Discovery for Web-based collection discovery and user services

Self-service stations for loans and returns

Smart-card and payment systems

LMS as Middleware
library services platform model
Library Services Platform model

Discovery Service

Search:

Self-Check /Automated Return

Library Management System

`

Digital Coll

Search Engine

Consolidated index

ProQuest

API Layer

StockManagement

EBSCO

Enterprise ResourcePlanning

Smart Cad / Payment systems

JSTOR

LearningManagement

AuthenticationService

Other Resources

major rfid companies
Major RFID Companies
  • 2CQR (UK)
  • 3M Library Systems
    • (also supports Checkpoint)
  • Bibliotheca / Intellident / Bibliotheca ITG
  • Book-Tech (Taiwan)
  • Convergent Software (RFID support software, Validation)
  • D-Tech (United Kingdom)
  • EnvisionWare (diverse product line including RFID)
  • Libramation (Canada)
  • Lib~Chip RFID system
  • Lyngsoe Systems (Sorting systems RFID/Barcode)
  • mKSorting Systms (RFID / sorting, self-check, etc)
  • PV Supa (Finland, Scandinavia)
  • ShenzenSeaeverInteligent Technology (China – RFID systems)
  • SwisslogTelelift GmbH (book transportation systems)
  • Tech Logic (Owned by TLC)
  • VTLS – Fastrack VTLS division
consolidation
Consolidation
  • Transition from a fragmented industry of many small players into one where dominated by large global companies
  • Many companies continue to prosper that operate within a region or country
bibliotheca intellident itg
Bibliotheca – Intellident – ITG
  • Three former competitors joint to form new global company
  • Integrated Technology Group – United States
    • Spun off of Vernon Library Supplies
  • Intellident
    • Based in the United Kingdom
      • Ident SAS (French subsidiary)
  • Bibliotheca RFID Systems
    • Based in Switzerland
new global company
New Global Company
  • Operates regionally under existing brands
    • Bibliotheca ITG / Intellident / Bibliotheca
  • Global company: Library Solutions BV
  • Majority ownership: One Equity Partners
    • Shai Robkin
diversification
Diversification
  • Companies involved in RFID tend to offer diversified products, often to different vertical markets
  • Diverse technologies: RFID, Electromagnetic, software, hardware, manufacturing
  • Different dependencies on suppliers of RFID chips, etc.
3m library systems
3M Library Systems
  • Largest player in RFID and self-service
    • Electromagnetic + RFIC products
  • Major launch into the e-book arena
    • 3M Cloud Library
    • Intends to compete with Overdrive
    • E-book content – licensed through major publishers
    • Integration layer – leveraging SIP and other mechanisms developed in support of self-check
    • E-book reader – developed for institutional lending
    • In-library kiosk for discovery and download
intellectual property issues
Intellectual Property Issues
  • Patent dispute between 3M and EnvisionWare
  • 3M filed patent infringement suit against EnvisionWare June 23, 2009
  • United States Patents involved in the suite include: 6,486,780, 6,232,870, and 6,857,568
  • USPTO ruled6,486,780 patent awarded to 3M dealing as invalid
  • USPTO review of 6,857,568 still in process
  • Announcement of confidential private settlement on August 12, 2011
privacy issues
Privacy Issues
  • How much information to encode on tags
  • Identifier only?
  • Additional functionality available with more content
  • Essential to avoid matching materials information with user
    • User data can be read from non-library materials
  • No public search of identifiers stored in tag
rfid data encoding standards
RFID Data Encoding Standards
  • ISO Standards published in March 2011
  • ISO 28560-1:2011
  • ISO 28560-2:2011
  • ISO 28560-3:2011
  • NISO: Proposed that US libraries adopt Section 1 and 2 and develop a national profile
rfid lms
Can RFID deliver value beyond self-check and AMH?

Need enhanced interoperability models

Leverage existing standards and API’s in the same way that the ILS-DI protocols provided needed support to connect LMS and Discovery products

Provide comprehensive automation model that helps libraries improve service and increase value to their communities

RFID & LMS
general observations
Industry maturing with larger and more stable companies

Increased development of Standards

Helpful to the extend adopted

Risks of investing in RFID diminishing

RFID currently focused on increased efficiency

RFID technologies increasingly positioned to support more innovative services

General Observations