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TESTING HIGHER SKILLS. Raja C Bandaranayake. DOMAINS OF LEARNING. Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Motor skills) Affective (Attitudes). THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN. Recall and recognition Comprehension or Understanding Application Problem-solving analysis synthesis evaluation.

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testing higher skills

TESTING HIGHER SKILLS

Raja C Bandaranayake

domains of learning
DOMAINS OF LEARNING
  • Cognitive(Knowledge)
  • Psychomotor(Motor skills)
  • Affective(Attitudes)
the cognitive domain
THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN
  • Recall and recognition
  • Comprehension or Understanding
  • Application
  • Problem-solving
    • analysis
    • synthesis
    • evaluation
types of questions
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
  • Multiple choice questions (MCQ)
  • Short answer questions (SAQ)
  • Modified essay questions (MEQ)
  • Long essay questions
  • OSPE / OSCE Stations
  • Clinicals (Long cases / Short cases)
  • Orals
long essay
LONG ESSAY

Describe the structural changes associated with the assumption of the erect posture by an infant.

List the advantages and disadvantages of each change.

slide6
SAQ

Name two sites in the body where an intimate relationship between the nervous and endocrine systems is of functional significance.

Explain the functional significance of such a relationship at each site, relating function to the histological structure of the site.

slide7
MEQ FLOWCHART – ACUTE APPENDICITIS

TRIGGERSSEQUENCEQUESTIONS

Male 25 yr Circum-umbilical Embryology

PGH Surg.Wd colicky pain Histology

Pain localised to RIFWhy changed?

Abd. Palpation Tenderness Parietal perit.

Pt of max tenderness rigidity, rebound tend. McBurney’s Pt

Temp Pulse Complications Pathogenesis

Generalized Generalized peritonitisWhy?

Pain, phy.signs

Laparotomy Ant abd wall, Positions

Gangrene, Perforation Bacteriology, Antibiotics Culture/ABS

slide8
You are a medical officer in a Surgical Ward of PGH.Mr M., a 25-year-old male patient, was admitted with pain in the right lower abdomen. Careful history revealed that the pain started 48 hours prior to admission as regular, intermittent attacks of gradually increasing severity around the navel. The pain is now felt only in the right lower abdomen, and it is continuous. A provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made by you.
slide9
Qn. 1AExplain how the pain was initially felt in the umbilical region in this patient?Qn. 1BDescribe the manner in which intermittent pain was produced in this patient, relating your description to the histological structure of the appendix.Qn. 1CName three structures in the abdomen, other than the intestine, in which such pain may originate.
slide10
Qn. 1DState precisely the pathological changes that are responsible for (a) the subsequent location of the pain in the right lower abdomen; and (b) its change from a colic to a continuous pain.Qn. 1EList three physical signs you may elicit in this patient on abdominal palpation, which would have helped you to make a provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis.Qn. 1FExplain how each of these signs has been brought about in this patient.
slide11
SummaryAcute appendicitis in a 25-year-old male. Physical exam. revealed tenderness , guarding and rebound tenderness in the right iliac fossa. Maximum point of tenderness was McBurney’s point. Pulse was 100/min; temperature 100.2ºF.Qn. 2ADraw a diagram to illustrate McBurney’s point.Qn. 2BList three (3) complications that may occur if this patient is not properly managed.Qn. 2CDescribe briefly the pathological changes that may occur in the inflamed appendix, which result in each of the complications mentioned.
slide12
MEQ GRIDQN. ANA PHY PAT MIC BIO PHA CLIN1A X 1B X X 1C X X 1D X 1E X 1F X 2A X 2B X 2C X X 3A X X X 3B X 4A X X 4B X X 4C X X 5A X 5B X 6A X 6B X X
mcq type a
MCQ - TYPE A

The best evidence for the neuroectodermal origin of the adrenal medulla is that

  • it has a direct arterial supply from the abdominal aorta
  • its venous drainage is into a persisting part of the subcardinal vein
  • it lies near the sympathetic trunk
  • its secretory cells are innervated by preganglionic fibres
  • its cells show a well developed granular endoplasmic reticulum
mcq type a14
MCQ – TYPE A

The anatomical feature which is least likely to contribute to middle ear infection is:

  • presence of lymphatic tissue in the pharyngeal end of the auditory tube
  • presence of mastoid air cells
  • a horizontally directed auditory tube in children
  • a longer cartilaginous part of the auditory tube in relation to the bony part
  • presence of the pars flaccida in the tympanic membrane
mcq type e
MCQ – TYPE E

The ductus arteriosus closes at birth by muscular contraction

because

Oxygen tension in the blood perfusing the ductus arteriosus rises when the pulmonary circulation opens up

mcq type r
MCQ – TYPE R

Theme: Cardiovascular drugs

Options:A. Alpha agonists

B. Alpha blockers

C. ACE inhibitors

D. Beta agonists…….

K. Vasoconstrictors

Lead-in:For each patient, select the most appropriate drug class

Item stems:

1. A 40-year-old man with sudden onset of severe headache, dizziness and vomiting, BP 260/130 mmHg; encephalopathy and grade IV retinopathy

2. A 55-year-old man with mild, chronic hypertension, tachycardia and other symptoms of mild congestive cardiac failure. Previous history of asthma and gout.

3. ………

integrated ospe osce based on a pathological specimen
INTEGRATED OSPE / OSCEBased on a pathological specimen

Examine the macroscopic specimen provided.

  • Pick up the ‘phone. At the other end of the line is a senior colleague more experienced in Pathology than you. Give him a macroscopic description of the specimen, pointing out particularly its abnormal features.
  • Give him your diagnostic conclusion from the specimen.
  • Tell him the findings on which you base your diagnosis.
  • Write the main clinical symptoms and signs you would expect this patient to have shown before his death.

Examine the histo-pathological slide provided.

5. Write the histological features seen which either support or do not support your diagnosis.

skin themes for integrated questions
SKIN: THEMES FOR INTEGRATED QUESTIONS

THEME ANAT PHYS MICRO PHARM MED DERM

Protective function

Sensory function

Structural damage

Immune mechanisms

Infection

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