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Biology 211 Anatomy & Physiology I. Joints. Last week: Defined bones as organs of skeletal system . Also organs: joints (one or more types of tissues, all serving a common function). Joints: Classified two ways: 1. What type of tissue connects the bones at the joint

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Biology 211Anatomy & Physiology I

Joints


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Last week: Defined bones as organs of skeletal system

Also organs: joints (one or more types of tissues, all serving a common function)


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Joints: Classified two ways:

1. What type of tissue connects the bones at the joint

2. How much motion the joint allows

F

C

S

No motion = S

Limited motion = A

Freely movable = D


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Fibrous Joints:

Bones connected by dense regular or dense irregular

connective tissue with many collagen fibers.

No joint cavity.

Depending on length of collagen fibers, may be synarthrotic (no motion) or amphiarthrotic (limited motion)


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Fibrous Joints:

Three subtypes:

1. S

Collagen fibers very short

Always synarthrotic

Only in skull


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Fibrous Joints:

Three subtypes:

(1. Suture: Collagen fibers very short, synarthrotic, only in skull)

2. S

Collagen fibers longer

Amphiarthrotic (some

motion)


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Fibrous Joints:

Three subtypes:

(1. Suture: Collagen fibers very short, synarthrotic, only in skull)

(2. Syndesmosis: Collagen fibers longer, amphiarthrotic)

3. G

Collagen fibers very short

Synarthrotic (no motion)

Teeth in mandible or maxilla


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Cartilagenous Joints:

Bones connected by some form of cartilage

No joint cavity.

Depending on length of collagen fibers, may be synarthrotic (no motion) or amphiarthrotic (limited motion)


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Cartilagenous Joints:

Two subtypes:

1. S

Bones connected by hyaline cartilage

Synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic

Costosternal; Epiphyseal plates


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Cartilagenous Joints:

Two subtypes:

(1. Synchondrosis: Bones connected by hyaline cartilage

Synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic; Costosternal; Epiphyseal plates)

2. S

Bones connected by fibrous cartilage

Amphiarthrotic or

synarthrotic

Intervertebral disks;

Pubic symphysis


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Synovial Joints:

Bones separated by synovial joint cavity;

connected by ligaments of dense regular C.T.

Most are diarthrotic

Some are amphiarthrotic


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Synovial Joints:

Components:

Proximal bone with

articular cartilage

Distal bone with

articular cartilage

Articular capsule with:

Fibrous capsule

Synovial membrane

surrounding

Synovial cavity

Ligaments of dense irregular C.T.

Intrinsic = thickenings of fibrous capsule

Extracapsular = outside of fibrous capsule

Intracapsular = inside synovial cavity


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Synovial Joints:

Proximal bone with articular cartilage

Distal bone with articular cartilage

Articular capsule with Fibrous capsule,

Synovial membrane surrounding Synovial cavity

Intrinsic ligament = thickenings of fibrous capsule

Extracapsular ligament = outside of fibrous capsule

Intracapsular ligament = inside synovial cavity

In knee, sternoclavicular, and

temporomandibular joints:

Also meniscus of fibrous cartilage


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Synovial Joints:

Six types based on structure and type of motion:


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Synovial Joints: Six types

1. P or G

Gliding motion along

flat articular surfaces.

Amphiarthrotic


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Synovial Joints: Six types

2. H

Motion around single

axis perpendicular to

long axis of bones.

Often convex articular

surface on one bone

and concave articular

surface on other

bone.

Diarthrotic


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Synovial Joints: Six types

3. P

Motion around single

axis parallel to long

axis of bones.

Often convex articular

surface on one bone

and concave articular

surface on other

bone.

Diarthrotic


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Synovial Joints: Six types

4. C

Motion around two

axes.

Articular surfaces of

both bones round or oval.

One shallowly convex.

One shallowly concave

Diarthrotic


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Synovial Joints: Six types

5. S

Motion around two

axes.

Articular surfaces of

both bones are:

Convex one direction

Concave other direction

Diarthrotic


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Synovial Joints: Six types

6. B

Motion around all three

axes.

Articular surfaces of one

bone forms "ball" which

fits into "socket" on other

bone

Diarthrotic


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Synovial jointsstabilized by

a)

b)


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Synovial jointsstabilized by

a) Shapes of the articular

surfaces of bones

b) Ligaments

c)


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Synovial jointsstabilized by

a) Shapes of the articular

surfaces of bones

b) Ligaments

c) Menisci

d)


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Synovial jointsstabilized by

d) Muscles and tendons

which cross the joint


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Synovial jointsoften cushioned by a fluid-filled sac called a b located between the joint and overlying muscles, tendons, or ligaments.


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Specific joints are described in your Saladin text.

In lecture, specific joints will be identified for which you should be able to briefly but accurately describe the structure, including all major ligaments; and for which you should be able to describe the actions.




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Movements of synovial diarthrotic joints:

Rotation and Circumduction


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Movements of synovial diarthrotic joints:

Protraction and Retraction




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Movements of synovial diarthrotic joints:

Opposition (and Reposition)


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